... The neurons carry information in the form of electrical
pulses known as action potentials . They ... in the brain, allows scientists to record the electrical
activity of individual neurons or fields of ... brainwaves, which are the mass changes in electrical
current from the cerebral cortex, but can only ...
... by Fourier's Law. Diffusion of electrons in an electrical
field is essentially Ohm's law . In each, a ... property (diffusivity or thermal conductivity or electrical
conductivity) multiplied by a gradient ... The rate of transport is governed by the electrical
conductivity of the conductor and the electric ...
energy or electromagnetic energy is a form of ... electromagnetic radiation . The SI unit of electrical
energy is the joule , while the unit used by electrical
utility companies is the watt-hour (Wh) or the ...
... in biological tissues and, in particular, to the electrical
recording techniques that enable the measurement ... recording techniques establish electrical
contact with the inside of a cell or tissue with ... Electrodes of this type are used to measure electrical
pulses in unmyelinated axons down to 100 nm.
... being affected by the neurotransmitter) an electrical
stimulation (an electrical
excitation ) which will spread to the axon ... potential which then travels as a wave of electrical
excitation along the axon. Arrival of an action ...
... Chemical energy
1.4 Rest mass energy
2 Relation between ... 90 petajoule /kg ≈ 21 megatons /kg)
potential energy per unit charge is called ...
... a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or " neuron ," which conducts electrical
impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. Axons are in effect ... occur at evenly spaced intervals, enabling an especially rapid mode of electrical
impulse propagation called saltation .
The axons of some neurons ...
... pore is governed by "gates," which may be opened or closed by chemical or electrical
signals, or mechanical force, depending on the variety of channel.
... in 1952. Channel's existence was confirmed in the 1970s with an electrical
recording technique known as the "patch clamp," which led to a Nobel ...
... and relaxation. In skeletal muscle, contraction is stimulated by electrical
impulses transmitted by the nerves , the motor nerves and motoneurons ... creatine kinase levels in the blood and electromyography (measuring electrical
activity in muscles).
Neuromuscular diseases are those that affect the ...
... activated by a change in cell potential , that is, the difference of the electrical
charge on both sides of the membrane. If such a change occurs, the ion ... tissue . As an example, the hypothalamus receives information, both electrical
and chemical. It produces releasing factors that affect the hypophysis ...
... communicate with one another through axons and dendrites , converting electrical
signals into chemical ones.
Synapses are specialized junctions ...
Note: There also exists a less elaborate form of junction called an electrical
Signalling across chemical synapses
The release of ...
... membranes . Unlike passive transport , this process requires chemical energy .
In this form of transport, molecules move against either an electrical
or concentration gradient (collectively termed an electrochemical gradient ). This is achieved by either altering the affinity of the binding site ...
... stood at the basis of or inspired:
AMP, an audio player made by PlayMedia Systems, Inc.
Zinf (formerly FreeAMP )
A brand of electrical
and electronic connectors , part of Tyco Electronics.
AMP Limited is an Australian company providing insurance , investment and other ...
... , who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with Alan Lloyd Hodgkin on the basis of nerve " action potentials ," the electrical
impulses that enable the activity of an organism to be coordinated by a central nervous system . Hodgkin and Huxley shared the prize that year with ...
... the points of maximum stress. It has been hypothesized that this is a result of bone's piezoelectric properties, which cause bone to generate small electrical
potentials under stress.
Bones can be connected to muscles via tendons and other bones by ligaments .
The science of the interaction of bone ...
Full blood count
... are sensors that count the number of cells going through it, and can identify the type of cell.
The two main sensors used are light detectors, and electrical
Because an automated cell counter samples and counts so many cells, it gives a very precise estimate. However, with certain abnormal ...
... Dendrite (crystal) .
In biology , a dendrite is a slender, typically branched projection of a nerve cell, or " neuron ," which conducts the electrical
stimulation received from other cells to the body or soma of the cell from which it projects. This stimulation arrives through synapses , which ...
... is usually collected at the end point to a test strip. This test strip contains various chemicals which when the blood is applied creates a small electrical
charge between two contacts. This charge will vary dependent on the glucose levels within the blood and its effect on the chemicals contained within ...
Magnetic resonance imaging
... endeavors to use the phase information from the MRI images to reconstruct current densities within a subject. Current density imaging works because electrical
currents generate magnetic fields, which in turn affect the phase of the magnetic dipoles during an imaging sequence. To date no successful CDI has ...
... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical
signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron . A chemical is classified as a neurotransmitter if it respects the following ...
... smell a single molecule of bombykol.
Insects primarily use their antennae for olfaction. Sensory neurons in the antenna generate odor-specific electrical
signals called spikes in response to odour. They process these signals from the sensory neurons in the antennal lobe followed by the mushroom ...
... across the membrane of a cell , mitochondrion , or other subcellular compartment, thereby creating a difference or gradient in both pH and electrical
charge (ignoring differences in buffer capacity ) and tending to establish an electrochemical potential .
In bacteria , mitochondria and other ...
... of the term are as follows:
In biology , the process of Genetic recombination and meiosis , as summarized above.
In chemistry and electrical
engineering , it is the state in which the hydrogen and oxygen gases form within the battery cell during charging are recombined to form ...
... cells, the cell type that, in the human body, transmits messages from the brain to the spinal cord. The newly generated motor neurons exhibited electrical
activity, the signature action of neurons. Researcher Su-Chun Zhang described the process as "you need to teach the [embryonic stem cells] to ...
Unsolved problems in biology
... affected by the geomagnetic field ?
Bioelectromagnetism : What are the mechanisms of biorhythms and chronobiology ? Why do cells generate electrical
fields? Why is magnetite in living creatures? How do animals possess long-range navigation and migration abilities? How was the homing ability ...