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Effect in Biological Definition

Diabetes mellitus

... appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistent high levels of blood glucose, poor ... an increase in blood osmolality . The osmotic effect of high glucose levels combined with the loss of ... own blood glucose measurements and noting the effect of food and exercise, patients can modify their ...

Drug

... expectations or beliefs about the drug ( placebo effect ) Distribution Two patterns of ... 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act Placebo effect Prohibition (drugs) Recreational drug use ... Dutch Jellinek clinic Shows the micro biological effect of several kinds of drugs on brain cells, using ...

Morphogenesis

... axis patterning in Drosophila 1.1 Maternal effect genes 1.2 Gap genes 1.3 Additional ... than in the example described here. Maternal effect genes mRNA distributions A ... localized oocyte mRNAs are called maternal effect genes . They have profound effects on the ...

Evolution

... 3 History of evolutionary thought 4 Social effect of evolutionary theory 4.1 Evolution and ... of neutral mutations. The probable mutation effect is the proposition that a gene that is not under ... of transitional forms between phyla. Social effect of evolutionary theory Main article: ...

Extinction

... to be spread throughout a population through the effect of genetic drift . A diverse or "deep" gene ... make inbreeding more frequent. The founder effect can cause rapid, individual-based speciation and ... the survivability of offspring. Since this effect was discovered, DDT has been banned in many parts ...

Gene

... may result in different traits because of the effect of other DNA strands or the environment. The ... from one pre-mRNA. Prokaryotes produce a similar effect by shifting reading frames during translation. ... distinguished from genes in molecular biology, in effect they satisfy the shared and historical sense of ...

Insulin

... itself; the activity is apparently confined to an effect on the muscular layer of the arteries . ... the activity of numerous enzymes ( allosteric effect ) The actions of insulin on cells include: ... total body weight in men). This homeostatic effect is the result of many factors, of which hormone ...

Morphogenesis

... axis patterning in Drosophila 1.1 Maternal effect genes 1.2 Gap genes 1.3 Additional ... than in the example described here. Maternal effect genes mRNA distributions A ... localized oocyte mRNAs are called maternal effect genes . They have profound effects on the ...

Neurotransmitter

... quantity in the presynaptic neuron to exert an effect on the postsynaptic neuron Externally ... 2 Mechanism of action 3 Post-synaptic effect 4 Specific actions 5 Common ... synaptic vesicles. Post-synaptic effect A ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... theory that was introduced with provocative effect by Motoo Kimura in the late 1960s and early ... many potential single-nucleotide changes are in effect "silent" or "unexpressed" (see synonymous or ... one of these new substitutions becomes fixed, the effect is to add a substitution to the sequence of the ...

Nutrition

... by comparing the waste to the food. The effect that the absorbed matter has on the body can be ... state and the post digestion state. The effect may only be discernible after an extended period ... seen to be vital in protecting against the aging effect of this oxidizing damage. Recently the health ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... they work 3 Criticism of SSRIs 3.1 effect not well understood 3.2 Newer medications ... blood-brain barrier , and therefore won't have an effect on brain functions. Second, pure serotonin would ... prescribed SSRIs by a family doctor. [1] effect not well understood Some say that the supposed ...

Alexander Fleming

... a difficult process better suited to chemists. In part by believing its effect may only hold valid with small infections and further by not being well ... not be able to be produced in sufficient quantities to have an appreciable effect in a war situation. Fleming was long a member of the Chelsea Arts Club ...

Antibiotic

... , prontosil , which was used to treat infections in humans, where its effect was found to be due to its conversion in the host to the active form, ... resistance Main article: Antibiotic resistance One side effect of misusing antibiotics is the development of antibiotic resistance by ...

Diffusion

... by the diffusivity and the concentration gradient. See also Kirkendall effect . Brownian motion Brownian motion occurs when discrete ... Hydrothermal circulation Isotope separation Kirkendall effect Laminar flow Liposomes List of biochemistry topics ...

DNA

... helix, two polynucleotide strands can associate through the hydrophobic effect . Specificity of which strands stay associated is determined by ... explanation was the complementary pairing of the bases, which also had the effect of ensuring that the distance between the phosphate chains did not vary ...

Enzyme

... in these regions can also inactivate the product). This has the additional effect of making each region act, relative to mutation, somewhat like an ... reaction can be used to "drive" a thermodynamically unfavorable one, in effect running the reaction 'backwards', or 'uphill'. For instance, the high ...

Genetic drift

... change the characteristics of species over time. It is a stochastic effect that arises from the role of random sampling in the production of ... may be eliminated. Similarly, migrating populations may see founder's effect , where a few individuals with a rare allele in the originating generation ...

Heterozygote

... of individuals in a population that are heterozygous for that locus. The effect of heterozygosity depends on the protein product coded for by the gene in ... proteins are enzymes, the less-functional enzyme molecules usually have no effect and the person is an asymptomatic carrier . If the proteins are ...

Homeostasis

... the maintenance of equilibrium They are unpredictable (the resulting effect of a precise action often has the opposite effect to what was expected). Main examples of homeostasis in mammals are as ...

Metapopulation

... small population and so rescue it from extinction (called the rescue effect ). The development of metapopulation theory, in conjunction with the ... able to guarantee the long-term survival of a given species, the combined effect of many populations may be able to do this. The most important ...

Reverse genetics

... organisms, such as yeast and mice ) -- and only afterwards look for the effect of such alterations in the whole organism. The discovery of gene silencing ... is the application of RNA interference . RNAi creates a specific knockout effect without actually mutating the DNA of interest. In C. elegans , RNAi has ...

Signal transduction

... and molecules that are even only slightly different tend to have no effect or else to act as inhibitors . Most extracellular chemical signals ... nucleus is accessible. Steroid receptors can also have a repressive effect on gene expression, when their transactivation domain is hidden so it ...

Thermoregulation

... fat reserves in one place (e.g. camel's hump) to avoid its insulating effect elongate, often vascularized extremities to conduct body heat to the ... far wider limits that a cold-blooded animal may endure and yet live. The effect of too extreme a cold is to lessen metabolism, and hence to lessen the ...

Actin

... binds to ADP-actin units and promotes their dissociation from the minus end and prevents their reassembly. The protein profilin reverses this effect by stimulating the exchange of bound ADP for ATP. In addition, ATP-actin units bound to profilin will dissociate from cofilin and are then free to ...

Arabidopsis

... responses of root cells to red, far red and infrared light. While gravitropic response of Arabidopsis root organs is the predominant tropic effect in these organs, specimens treated with mutagens and then selected for the absence of gravitropic action have shown both negative phototropic ...

Axon

... long slender projection of a nerve cell, or " neuron ," which conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. Axons are in effect the primary transmission lines of the nervous system , and as bundles they help make up nerves . Individual axons are microscopic in ...

B cell

... in the blood and lymph, but are not producing antibodies. There are two types of B cells: Plasma B cells secrete antibodies which effect the destruction of antigens by binding to them and making them easier targets for phagocytes . Memory B cells are formed specific to the ...

Beta sheet

... in the backbone of one strand establish hydrogen bonds with the C=O groups in the backbone of the adjacent, parallel strand(s). The cumulative effect of multiple such hydrogen bonds arranged in this way contributes to the sheet's stability and structural rigidity and integrity. The α-C atoms ...

Cancer

... recommended body weight, may all contribute to reductions in risk of certain cancers; however, compared with tobacco exposure, the magnitude of effect is modest or small and the strength of evidence is often weaker. Other lifestyle and environmental factors known to affect cancer risk (either ...

Charles Darwin

... which still persists in evolutionary psychology . His work on plants now produced a series of books, then he turned back to the question of the effect worms have on soil levels. Darwin died in Downe, Kent , England, on 19 April 1882 and was given a state funeral. William Spottiswoode , ...

Competitive inhibitor

... enter the site when the substrate is there. Characteristic for this mode of inhibition is that increasing the concentration of substrate reduces the effect of the inhibitor, and vice-versa. In noncompetitive inhibition , the inhibitor works by occupying some other site on the enzyme. Because of this, ...

Developmental biology

... membrane , fetus (or foetus ), gastrula , gastrulation , germ layer , germ plasm , germination , induction , juvenile , larva , maternal effect , mesoderm , metamorphosis , morphogenesis , morula , neoteny , neural development , nymph , ontogeny , oosperm , ovism , paedogenesis , ...

Evolutionary developmental biology

... function at one locus , leaving the duplicated locus free to fulfill a new function. In contrast, changes in gene regulation , is a "second-order" effect of genes, resulting from the interaction and timing of the genetic network, as distinct from the functioning of the individual genes in the network ...

Genetics

... , where the DNA of an organism is modified for some kind of practical end, but most research in genetics is aimed at understanding and explaining the effect of genes on phenotypes and in the role of genes in populations (see population genetics and ecological genetics ), rather than genetic ....

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... , but depending which assumption is not met, such deviations may or may not be statistically detectable. Deviations can be caused by the Wahlund effect , inbreeding , assortative mating , selection , or genetic drift . Assortative mating will only change the genotype frequencies of those genes ...

Kinesiology

... to measure its efficacy of at relieving chronic pain . Other experiments could measure less subjective qualities, like a specific physiological effect (such as blood pressure ). Kinesiology is distinct from applied kinesiology , which is considered to be particular therapeutic approach to ...

Lambda phage

... of three operators, OR1, OR2, and OR3, in the order OR1 > OR2 > OR3. Binding of a cI dimer to OR1 enhances binding of a second cI dimer to OR2, an effect called cooperativity . Thus, OR1 and OR2 are almost always simultaneously occupied by cI. However, this does not increase the affinity between cI ...

Louis Pasteur

... acid: solutions of one form rotated polarised light clockwise, while the other form rotated light counterclockwise. An equal mix of the two had no effect on polarized light. Pasteur correctly deduced that the tartaric acid molecule was asymmetric and could exist in two different forms that resemble one ...

Malaria

... Main article: DDT DDT was developed as the first of the modern insecticides early in World War II . It was initially used with great effect to combat mosquitoes spreading malaria. It was banned for use in many countries in the 1970s due to its negative environmental impact. There is great ...
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