... , antibiotics were labelled "magic bullets": drugs
which targeted disease without harming the host. ... aminoglycosides including gentamicin
which inhibit folate synthesis
Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
which interfere with DNA synthesis
Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs
("anticancer drugs") that can destroy cancer ... themselves after chemotherapy.
Because some drugs
work better together than alone, two or more drugs
are often given at the same time. This is called ...
... which means "dry", since in the past, most drugs
were dried plant parts.
Contents ... links
9 Books about Illicit and Popular drugs
The term "drug" is ... The term "medication" is frequently applied to drugs
used for medical treatment, presumably to avoid ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
... antidepressants, SSRIs were rationally designed drugs
. Instead of being discovered by accident, SSRIs ... Compared to the withdrawal symptoms of such drugs
as opiates , alcohol or cocaine , these are ...
List of SSRIs
in this class are familiar through advertising, ...
... Barbiturates are drugs
that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants , and by virtue of ... popular in the first half of the 20th century. In moderate amounts, these drugs
produce a state of intoxication that is remarkably similar to alcohol ...
... generally more sensitive to the toxic effects that conventional anticancer drugs
have on the cancer cells . Many conventional anticancer drugs
(for example, 5-Fluoro Uracil ) interfere with DNA replication and can ...
... the context of the treatment of cancers together with chemotherapy ( drugs
) and radiotherapy ( radiation ). However, immunotherapy is also often ... rapid techniques for the diagnosis of disease, microbes and even illegal drugs
in vivo (of course tests conducted in closed environment have a higher ...
... it must be consumed daily. It seems inevitable that resistance to these drugs
will also occur. "Malarone" is also a recommended prophylactic.
In ... falciparum , which was completed in 2002 , will provide targets for new drugs
Efforts to eradicate malaria by attacking mosquitos have ...
... for a tiny Brazilian village (see  ). The widespread use of fertility drugs
causing hyperovulation (stimulated release of multiple eggs by the mother) ...
Several previous pregnancies.
Women who have been taking fertility drugs
have the greatest chance of multiple births, ranging from 10 to 20 ....
Varicella zoster virus
... sodium hypochlorite . Within the body it can be treated by a number of drugs
and therapeutic agents including aciclovir , zoster immunoglobulin ... and colleagues in the 1970s. It was submitted to the U.S. Food and drugs
Administration for approval in 1990 and was approved in 1995. Since then, ...
... hormones, particularly fat soluble ones
Transports fatty acids ("free" fatty acids)
Transports unconjugated bilirubin
Transports many drugs
Competitively binds calcium ions (Ca 2+ )
Causes of albumin deficiency:
Cirrhosis of the liver (most commonly)
... tested negative for bird flu were later found to have carried the virus. All seven have since recovered from the disease.
are sometimes effective in both preventing and treating the disease, but no virus has ever been really cured in medical history. Vaccines , ...
... trouble), and morphine from the poppy plant (pain relief). According the National Cancer Institute , over 70 % of the promising anti-cancer drugs
come from plants in the tropical rainforests . Animal may also play a role, in particular in research. It is estimated that of the 250,000 known ...
... term describes start-up companies especially in medical discovery that are characterised by many years of financial losses as they put experimental drugs
through clinical trials.
1 Sub-fields of biotechnology
2 Biotechnology timeline
... through the veins .
See circulatory system for a more detailed description of this circulation.
Blood also transports metabolic waste products, drugs
and other foreign chemicals to the liver to be degraded and to the kidney to be excreted in urine .
A buffer solution of carbonic acid (H ...
... of studying plants to understand fundamental biological processes.
Utilise medicine and materials
Many of our medicinal and recreational drugs
, like cannabis , caffeine and nicotine come directly from the plant kingdom. Aspirin , which originally came from the bark of willow ...
... stress disorder , are now recognized as having a biological basis in the brain. These disease can be treated by psychiatric therapy , by drugs
, or by a combination of treatments.
Some diseases that affect the brain are caused by germs. Viral or bacterial infection of the meninges, ...
... sensitivity, even when the weight lost is modest e.g. around 5 kg (10 to 15 lb). The next step, if necessary, is treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs
: the sulphonylureas , metformin , or (if these are insufficient) thiazolidinediones . When these have failed, insulin therapy may be necessary to ...
The pleasure center is located in the limbic system. It is involved in sexual arousal and in the "high" derived from certain recreational drugs
. Dopamine acts here. Rats with electrodes implanted into their limbic system will self-stimulate in preference over food and will eventually die ...
... exchange and regulation of hydrogen ion concentration , the lungs also:
influence on the concentration of biologically active substances and drugs
used in medicine in arterial blood
filter out small blood clots formed in the systemic veins
serve as a physical layer of soft, shock ...
... Calvin cycle
Drug metabolism pathways, the modification or degradation of drugs
and other xenobiotic compounds through specialized enzyme systems:
Cytochrome P450 oxidase system
Flavin-containing monooxygenase ...
... of situations, the protein may be crystallized so its tertiary structure can be studied, or, in the pharmaceutical industry, the activity of new drugs
against the protein can be studied.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Main article: Polymerase chain reaction
The polymerase chain ...
... phages and their therapeutic uses in the Tbilisi Institute in Georgia . The development of bacterial strains that are resistant to multiple drugs
has led Western medical researchers to re-evaluate phages as alternatives to the use of antibiotics.
Phage display is a test to screen for ...
... The size, number and replenishment rate of vesicles also are subject to regulation, as are many other elements of synaptic transmission. The drugs
known as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or SSRIs affect certain synapses by inhibiting the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin . ...
... localize at centrioles and may play a role in forming the mitotic spindle during mitosis.
Tubulins are targets for anticancer drugs
like taxol . The anti- gout agent colchicine binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule formation, arresting neutrophil motility and decreasing ...
... are difficult to kill. The most effective medical approaches to viral diseases, thus far, are vaccination to provide resistance to infection, and drugs
that treat the symptoms of viral infections. Patients often ask for antibiotics , which are useless against viruses, and their misuse against viral ...
... of viral diseases such as influenza , HIV , hepatitis , and many others. It also causes problems in the development of successful antiviral drugs
, as resistant mutations often appear within weeks to months after the beginning of the treatment.
RNA viruses are also used as a model system to ...