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Down in Biological Definition

Adenosine triphosphate

... and fatty acids . Initially glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the cytosol . Two molecules ... and adenosine diphosphate , which can be broken down further to another phosphate ion and adenosine monophosphate . ATP can also be broken down to adenosine monophosphate directly, with the ...

Cellular respiration

... respiration, this oxidation process is broken down into two basic metabolic pathways : glycolysis ... of pyruvate There are now two ways to break down the resulting pyruvate: Aerobic respiration ... the Krebs cycle . In this process it is broken down producing energy in the form of ATP (which ...

Cell metabolism

... and catabolism , in which a cell breaks down complex molecules to yield energy and reducing ... cells by which complex molecules are broken down to produce energy and reducing power. On balance, ... process of lipids or phospholipids being broken down by lipases . The opposite of fat catabolism is ...

Charles Darwin

... of the hazards of radicalism , Charles turned down the then controversial Robert Edmund Grant 's ... headed "Marry" and "Not Marry" . Having come down in favour, he went to visit his cousin Emma on ... , the couple moved on 17 September 1842 to down House , in Downe , Kent (which is now open to ...

Citric acid cycle

... metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of carbohydrates , fats and proteins into ... breaks glucose (a six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In ... In protein catabolism , proteins are broken down by protease enzymes into their constituent ...

Down syndrome

... A child with down syndrome down syndrome (also called Down's syndrome ) ... 1 Overview 2 Medical research 3 down syndrome's sociology 4 Notable individuals ...

Enzyme

... is similar to the likelihood of a ball rolling down a hill versus the likelihood of it rolling up the ... a pebble that is stopping the ball from rolling down the hill; the reaction goes to completion more ... violated by the possibility of a cycle of moving down a pathway releasing less net energy and back up a ...

Fermentation

... process, natural enzymes within the malt break down much of the starch into sugars which play a ... F or 40 C activates beta-glucanase , which breaks down gummy beta-glucans in the mash, making the sugars ... 55C) activates various proteinases , which break down proteins that might otherwise cause the beer to ...

Citric acid cycle

... metabolic pathway that forms part of the break down of carbohydrates , fats and proteins into ... breaks glucose (a six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In ... In protein catabolism , proteins are broken down by protease enzymes into their constituent ...

Phloem

... osmosis , creating pressure that pushes the sap down the tube. In sugar sinks, cells actively ... is produced in phases. Primary phloem is laid down by the apical meristem . Secondary phloem is laid down by the vascular cambium to the inside of the ...

Thermoregulation

... the mammals, their thin skin has no sweat glands. down feathers trap warm air acting as excellent ... to the burrows. Interestingly, as the sun goes down and the temperature is cooler, it emerges again. ... (e.g. groundhogs) keep their body temperature down throughout their hibernation while the core ...

Bone

... Bone can also be either woven or lamellar . Woven bone is put down rapidly during growth or repair. It is so called because its fibres are ... is present in the form of hydroxylapatite. The matrix is initially laid down as unmineralized osteoid (manufactured by osteoblasts). Mineralisation ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... CO2 at night and change it into crassulacean acid that can be broken down during the day for sugars. These plants can close their stomata during the ... other, simple organic compounds. Malate in particular is easily broken down into pyruvate , which can be phosphorylated into PEP and then be ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... CO2 at night and change it into crassulacean acid that can be broken down during the day for sugars. These plants can close their stomata during the ... other, simple organic compounds. Malate in particular is easily broken down into pyruvate , which can be phosphorylated into PEP and then be ...

Diffusion

... carrier protein in a membrane. As in simple diffusion, net transport is down a concentration gradient, and no additional energy has to be supplied. ... Reverse diffusion In general, diffusion results in transport down the gradient -- i.e. things move from regions of high concentration to low ...

Warm-blooded

... not only the ability to generate heat , but also the ability to cool down if necessary. Also known as endotherms , warm-blooded animals control ... thought to be cold blooded. Tuna and swordfish dive deep into the ocean, down to where the water is quite cold. Swordfish are able to raise the ...

Eukaryote

... various purposes. For instance, lysosomes contain enzymes that break down the contents of food vacuoles, and peroxisomes are used to break down peroxide which is toxic otherwise. Many protozoa have contractile ...

Human Genome Project

... The Human Genome Project (HGP) endeavored to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair ) level and to identify all the genes ... a researcher investigating a certain form of cancer may have narrowed down his search to a particular gene. By visiting the human genome database on ...

Insulin

... secretions that Minkowski had originally studied that were breaking down the secretion, thereby making it impossible to extract successfully. He ... by the autonomic nervous system . When the glucose level comes down to the usual physiologic value, insulin release from the beta cells slows ...

Osmoregulation

... Bowman's capsule or glomerular capsule (in the kidney's cortex) and flows down the proximal convoluted tubule to a "u-turn" called the Loop of Henle ... tubules. secretion - the remaining fluid becomes urine which travels down collecting ducts to the medullary region of the kidney. excretion - the ...

Prion

... Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease resisted ultraviolet radiation (which breaks down nucleic acids), yet responded to agents that disrupt proteins. Initially, ... of PrP SC somehow alters the way in which PrP is synthesized, shunting it down an alternative metabolic pathway that results in the formation of more ...

Proprioception

... feet or legs are missing from your mental self-image; the need to look down at arms, hands, legs, etc. to convince yourself that they are still there; falling down while walking, especially when attention is focused upon something other ...

Purine

... Many organisms have metabolic pathways to synthesize and break down purines. Purines are biologically synthesized as nucleotides (bases ... The deficiency of another enzyme, adenosine deaminase , needed to break down adenine, is a cause of severe combined immunodeficiency . Purines from ...

Rudolf Steiner

... On New Year's Eve, 1922, the first Goetheanum building was burned down by arsonists. Unwavered, work was begun on a second Goetheanum building ... University for Spiritual Science . The first Goetheanum was burned down by arsonists on New Year's eve 1922 . Several surrounding buildings he ...

Xylem

... of insects and xylem cells. In perennial plants , xylem is laid down in multiple phases. Primary xylem is one of the tissues left behind by the apical meristem . Secondary xylem is laid down by vascular cambium on the outside of the xylem column. Contents ...

Abiogenesis

... to which fully formed living organisms sometimes arise from not-living matter. Aristotle explicitly taught this form of abiogenesis, and laid it down as an observed fact that some animals spring from putrid matter, that plant lice arise from the dew which falls on plants, that fleas are ...

Antibiotic

... cell which will not harm a human cell. Similarly, we know now that viruses represent an incredibly minimal intracellular parasite, being stripped down to a few genes worth of DNA or RNA and the minimal molecular equipment needed to enter a cell and actually take over the machinery of the cell to ...

ATPase

... group to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This enzyme works when a proton moves down the concentration gradient, giving the enzyme a spinning motion. This unique spinning motion bonds ADP and P together to create ATP. ATP synthetase ...

Autotroph

... — depend on autotrophs for energy and for the raw materials to make complex organic molecules. The heterotrophs obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules in their food. Even carnivorous animals rely on autotrophs because the energy and organic building blocks obtained from their ...

Biomechanics

... model living tissues as continuous media. For example, at the tissue level, the arterial wall can be modeled as a continuum . This assumption breaks down when the length scales of interest approach the order of the microstructural details of the material. The basic postulates of continuum mechanics are ...

Brain

... is a deadly disease among cattle and is linked to prions . Some brain disorders are congenital . Tay-Sachs disease , Fragile X syndrome , down syndrome , and Tourette syndrome are all linked to genetic or chromosomal errors. Malfunctions in the embryonic development of the brain can ...

Carbohydrate

... hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon except the functional group. Other carbohydrates are composed of monosaccharide units, and break down under hydrolysis . These may be classified as disaccharides , oligosaccharides , or polysaccharides , depending on whether they have two, ...

Cell biology

... to the plasma membrane. From the plasma membrane, proteins destined to be degraded move back into intracellular compartments where they are broken down to their individual amino acids . Techniques Purification of cells and their parts Purification of cells and their parts is ...

Centriole

... in plants . The walls of each centriole are composed of nine triplets of microtubules , each arranged at a right angle such that when looking down the tube, one end of the triplet pair points slightly outwards and the other end points slightly inwards. In animal cells as well as certain algae ...

Chromosome

... , which is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. It is characterized by severe growth retardation and mental defect. down syndrome (extra chromosome 21). This is also known as mongolism or trisomy 21 . Symptoms are decreased muscle tone, asymmetrical skull, slanting ...

Cloning

... to telomeres , regions at the tips of chromosomes which prevent genetic threads fraying every time a cell divides . Over time telomeres get worn down until cell-division is no longer possible - this is thought to be a cause of aging. However, when researchers cloned cows they appeared to be younger ...

Developmental biology

... context. The findings of developmental biology can help to understand developmental malfunctions such as chromosomal aberrations , for example, down syndrome . An understanding of the specialization of cells during embryogenesis may shield information on how to specialize stem cells to ...

Digestion

... gizzard (or a stomach that acts as teeth and mechanically digests food). A herbivore may have a cecum that contains bacteria that helps break down the cellulose in plants. Ruminants , for example cows and sheep , have a specialised four-chambered stomach that produces cud to enable ...

Ploidy

... are lethal, but trisomy (three copies) of the sex chromosome (the cause of Klinefelter's syndrome and others) and of chromosome 21 (the cause of down syndrome ) are relatively common. Many forms of cancer have incorrect ploidy numbers, due to the accumulation of mutations which increase ...

DNA

... is what it's all about, the sequence itself is the description for genes; Replication is performed by splitting (unzipping) the double strand down the middle via relatively trivial chemical reactions, and recreating the "other half" of each new single strand by drowning each half in a "soup" ...
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