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Double in Biological Definition

Cell growth

... a parental cell. Typical stem cells reproduce, double in size, then reproduce again. Most Cytosolic ... cell will have 46 "double chromosomes". In each double chromosome there are two copies of that chromosome's DNA molecule. During mitosis the double chromosomes are split to produce 92 "single ...

DNA

... is performed by splitting (unzipping) the double strand down the middle via relatively trivial ... of molecules, which entwine like vines to form a double helix (see the illustration at the right). ... cytosine (C), and guanine (G). In a DNA double helix, two polynucleotide strands can associate ...

Genetic recombination

... recombinase creates a nick in one strand of a DNA double helix, allowing the nicked strand to pull apart ... strand and anneal to one strand of the double helix on the opposite chromatid. A second nick allows the unannealed strand in the second double helix to pull apart and anneal to the remaining ...

James D. Watson

... and Maurice Wilkins , they together deduced the double helix structure of DNA, which they published in ... in 1962 . In 1968 Watson wrote The double Helix , one of the Modern Library 's 100 best ... and controversy surrounding their work. The double Helix changed the way the public viewed ...

T cell

... and CD3, but neither CD4 nor CD8 (they are double negative, CD4 - CD8 - cells). In the early ... molecules at their surface, they are said to be double positive (CD4 + CD8 + ). double positive cells move deeper in the cortex, where ...

Double helix

... The term double helix ( plural helices) describes the structure of DNA as first ... forces, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals forces forming a double helix. ...

Enzyme

... by extrapolating from a limited data set, using what is known as a double reciprocal, or Lineweaver-Burk plot. The efficiency of an enzyme can be ... : all those enzymes that can eliminate a group from a molecule to form a double bond and vice versa. Monoamine oxidase (MAO): oxidize certain ...

Eukaryote

... ultimately derived from such vesicles. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane, with pores that allow material to move in and out. Various ... are organelles found in nearly all eukaryotes. They are surrounded by double membranes, the inner of which is folded into invaginations called cristae, ...

Francis Crick

... ISBN 0684801582 Books about Crick James D. Watson, The double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA , ... dramatisation Life Story by BBC Horizon (also broadcast as Race for the double Helix ). Francis Crick and James Watson: Pioneers in DNA Research by ...

Lineweaver-Burke diagram

... , a Lineweaver-Burke diagram (also called a Lineweaver-Burke plot or double reciprocal plot ) is a graphical representation of the Lineweaver-Burke ... of v max ; the x-intercept of the graph represents -1/K m . The double reciprocal nature of the plot lends itself to overweighting the ...

Apoptosis

... Kihlmark et al. , in [2] ). Chromatin undergoes further condensation into compact patches against the nuclear envelope . At this stage, the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus still appears complete; however, as observed by Kihlmark and colleagues, specialized caspases have already ...

Biological membrane

... membrane or biomembrane is a membrane which acts as a barrier within or around a cell . It is a lipid bilayer , being composed of a double layer of lipid -class molecules , specifically phospholipids , with occasional proteins intertwined, some of which function as channels . ...

Cancer

... among other things, to a genetic instability of the cell. The instability increases to a point where the cell loses whole chromosomes , or has double ones. Also, the DNA methylation pattern of the cell changes, activating and deactivating genes more or less at random. Cells that divide at a ...

Cell nucleus

... needed for cellular division . The nucleus, being the largest organelle , varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres . It is enclosed by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope . The inner and outer membrane fuse at regular intervals, forming nuclear pores . The nuclear envelope ...

Chloroplast

... algae which conduct photosynthesis . Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria but are found only in plants. Both organelles are surrounded by a double membrane with an intermembrane space; both have their own DNA and are involved in energy metabolism; and both have reticulations, or many foldings, ...

Ploidy

... chromosomes halved by randomly "choosing" one homologue, resulting in haploid germ cells ( sperm and ovum ). Diploid Diploid cells (meaning double in Greek ) have two copies ( homologs ) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one ...

Down syndrome

... a satisfactory quality of life, and the extra chromosome may confer some health benefits, for example, reduced incidence of certain cancers caused by double immunity: lung cancer, for instance, is virtually unknown in people with Down syndrome. Notable individuals Notable people with Down ...

Genetic fingerprinting

... prosecutors heavily relied on and through expert witnesses exhaustively presented and explained DNA evidence allegedly linking O. J. Simpson to a double murder. In June of 2003 , because of new DNA evidence, Dennis Halstead, John Kogut and John Restivo won a re-trial on their murder conviction. ...

Genetics

... Hershey-Chase experiment proves the genetic information of phages (and all other organisms) to be DNA 1953 DNA structure is resolved to be a double helix by James D. Watson and Francis Crick 1956 Jo Hin Tjio and Albert Levan established the correct chromosome number in humans to be ...

Ploidy

... chromosomes halved by randomly "choosing" one homologue, resulting in haploid germ cells ( sperm and ovum ). Diploid Diploid cells (meaning double in Greek ) have two copies ( homologs ) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one ...

Lipid

... ester linkage. Fatty acids are unbranched hydrocarbon chains, connected by single bonds alone ( saturated fatty acids) or by both single and double bonds ( unsaturated fatty acids). The chains are usually 14-24 carbon groups long. The head groups of the phospholipids found in ...

Redox

... hydrogen gas (H 2 ) with a palladium, platinium or nickel catalyst. These catalytic reductions are primarily used in the reduction of carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant . Thus, at the end of the ...

Parthenogenesis

... In sexual populations half the individuals are male and cannot themselves produce offspring. This means that an asexual lineage will have roughly double the rate of population growth under ideal conditions. Organisms that can reproduce through parthenogenesis are also more able to settle isolated ...

Peptide bond

... are chains of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. The backbone of PNA is also held together by peptide bonds. The C-N bond has a partial double bond character (with the Nitrogen atom attaining a partial positive charge and the oxygen atom a partial negative charge) and the molecule can ...

Protein biosynthesis

... biosynthesis 4 External links Transcription Main article: Transcription Transcription only requires one strand of the DNA double helix. This is called the coding strand . The transcription starts with initiation. RNA polymerase , an enzyme, binds to a specific region on the ...

Redox

... hydrogen gas (H 2 ) with a palladium, platinium or nickel catalyst. These catalytic reductions are primarily used in the reduction of carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant . Thus, at the end of the ...

Restriction enzyme

... endonuclease ) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA . The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases . The chemical bonds that the enzymes cleave can be reformed by other enzymes known as ligases , so that ...

Reverse genetics

... such as yeast and mice ) -- and only afterwards look for the effect of such alterations in the whole organism. The discovery of gene silencing using double stranded RNA, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), and the development of gene knockdown using Morpholino oligos have made disrupting gene ...

RNA

... The synthesis begins when the enzyme binds to special promoter regions on the DNA helix; these regions mark the beginning of a gene. The DNA double helix is unwound by the helicase activity of the enzyme. RNA is then synthesised so that it is complementary to one of strands in the DNA . The ...

Varicella zoster virus

... nm in diameter. Its lipid envelope encloses the nucleocapsid of 162 capsomeres arranged in a hexagonal form. Its DNA is a single linear, double strand molecule, 125,000 nt long. The virus is very susceptible to disinfectants , notably sodium hypochlorite . Within the body it can be ...

Virus

... nascent. Viral size, structure and, anatomy Virus particles comprise a nucleic acid genome , that may be either DNA or RNA , single or double stranded and positive or negative sense. This is surrounded (encapsidated) by a protective coat of protein called the capsid . The viral capsid ...
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