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Division in Biological Definition

Cancer

... of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division and the ability of these cells to invade other ... destroy cancer cells. It interferes with cell division is various possible ways, e.g. with the ... the process of derangement of the rate of cell division . Cancer is, ultimately, a disease of genes ....

Cell division

... Cell division is the process of a biological cell (called a ... nuclear division, called mitosis , followed by division of the cell, called cytokinesis . A diploid ... cell division. However, in some animals, cell division eventually halts, and the cell is then referred ...

Cell growth

... The relationship between cell size and cell division has been extensively studied in yeast . For some cells, there is a mechanism by which cell division is not initiated until a cell has reached a ... cell size mutants were isolated that begin cell division before reaching the normal size ( wee mutants). ...

Meiosis

... with syngamy . It is a form of nuclear division by which a diploid parent produces four ... The process includes the two stages of nuclear division (meiosis I and II), each usually accompanied by ... .) As described earlier, meiotic nuclear division consists of two stages, called meiosis I and ...

Plasmid

... for a long time, be duplicated with every cell division of the host, and become a basic part of its ... ). 1 Chromosomal DNA . 2 Plasmids . 3 Cell division . 4 Chromosomal DNA with integrated plasmids ... a single copy in each bacterium are, upon cell division , in danger of being lost in one of the ...

Centrosome

... structure, since it acts as a nexus for cell activity, facilitates cell division . In animal cells, as well as those of certain algae and fungi, the ... for example by a laser , the spindle nonetheless forms and cell division procedes normally. ...

Cytoskeleton

... of GTP , but these filaments do not group into tubules. During cell division , FtsZ is the first protein to move to the division site, and is essential for recruiting other proteins that produce a new ...

Eukaryote

... organelle called the haptonema. Reproduction Nuclear division is often coordinated with cell division . This generally takes place by mitosis , a process which allows each ...

Fungus

... its fruiting bodies—reproductive structures that produce spores . division of hyphae into cells is either incomplete, in which case the hyphae are ... has been lost, or is unknown. These were originally grouped as the form division Deuteromycota , or the Fungi imperfecti , since the means of sexual ...

Interphase

... is a phase of the cell cycle , defined only by the absence of cell division . Cells during interphase may or may not be growing. At any given time, even in an area of rapid cell division such as the tip of a plant root , 90 per cent of cells are in interphase. ...

Microbiology

... resources Some have very short generation times (the time needed for division of a bacterial cell in two in optimal conditions; ~30 minutes for E. ... from other cells Unicellular eukaryotes reproduce by mitotic division and prokaryotes by binary fission . This allows for the propagation of ...

Mitosis

... biology , mitosis is the process of chromosome segregation and nuclear division that follows replication of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. ... organism's genome. In most eukaryotes mitosis is accompanied with cell division or cytokinesis , but there are many exceptions, for instance among the ...

Nervous system

... of. The autonomic nervous system is then divided into the sympathetic division and parasympathetic division . The sympathetic nervous system responds to impending danger or stress, ...

Patau syndrome

... the formation of reproductive cells (eggs and sperm). An error in cell division called nondisjunction can result in reproductive cells with an abnormal ... syndrome is also not inherited. It occurs as a random error during cell division early in fetal development. As a result, some of the body's cells have ...

Spermatogenesis

... primary spermatocytes . Primary spermatocytes go through a meiotic division to become secondary spermatocytes , which undergo another meiotic division to become spermatids . Type A spermatogonia stay as spermatogonia, and ...

Mitosis

... biology , mitosis is the process of chromosome segregation and nuclear division that follows replication of the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. ... organism's genome. In most eukaryotes mitosis is accompanied with cell division or cytokinesis , but there are many exceptions, for instance among the ...

Actin

... shorterning, or contraction, of the actin bundle (but not the filament). This mechanism is responsible for muscle contraction and cytokinesis , the division of one cell into two. Networks Actin networks, along with their actin-binding protein, filamin , form the cells cortex. This underlies the ...

Anatomy

... one animal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy . From a utilitarian point of view the study of humans is the most important division of special anatomy, and this human anatomy may be approached from different points of view. From that of Medicine it consists of a knowledge of the ...

Apoptosis

... embryonic cell lineage. In other words, Sulston and his team had traced where each and every cell in the roundworm's embryo came from during the division process, and where they ended up. H. Robert Horvitz arrived from the US at the LMB in 1974, where he collaborated with Sulston. Both would ...

Archaea

... the name Archaea, from the Greek archae or ancient. Later he treated these groups formally as domains , each comprising several kingdoms. This division has become very popular, although the idea of the progenote itself is not generally supported. Some biologists, however, have argued that the ...

Biodiversity

... fears of resources disappearance related to the erosion of the biodiversity. However, it is also is the origin of new conflicts dealing with rules of division and appropriation of natural resources. Some of the important economic commodities that biodiversity supplies to humankind are: biodiversity ...

Botany

... his studies of plants. Understand fundamental life processes Plants are convenient organisms in which fundamental life processes (like cell division and protein synthesis for example) can be studied, without the ethical dilemmas of studying animals or humans. The genetic laws of inheritance ...

Brain

... the optic lobes perform much of the visual processing and can be functionally considered to be a part of the brain. In vertebrates, a gross division into three major parts is used: hindbrain ( medulla oblongata and metencephalon ), midbrain ( mesencephalon ) and forebrain ( diencephalon ...

Cell nucleus

... material. Nuclei have two primary functions: to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm and to store information needed for cellular division . The nucleus, being the largest organelle , varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres . It is enclosed by a double membrane called the ...

Centriole

... known as diplosomes, and the region they are located in (close to the nucleus) is known as the centrosome . Centrioles are important in the cell division process, organizing the spindle upon which the chromosomes are pulled apart. Some animal cells may be able to separate without centrioles. ...

Chromosomal crossover

... of these on the other. If they break and rejoin on opposite sides of the centromere , the result can be one chromosome being lost during cell division . If homologous chromosome are not perfectly aligned an unequal crossover may occur, an unequal crossover can create duplicate genes. Any pair ...

DNA

... replication Main article: DNA replication DNA replication or DNA synthesis is the process of copying the double-stranded DNA prior to cell division . The two resulting double strands are generally almost perfectly identical, but occasionally errors in replication can result in a less than ...

Embryo

... grow out from the seed — it is called a seedling . Animals : The embryo of vertebrates is defined as the stages between the first division of the zygote (a fertilized ovum ) until it becomes a foetus . An embryo is called a foetus at a more advanced stage of development and up ...

Evolution

... changes to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA ) of a cell , and can be caused by "copying errors" in the genetic material during cell division and by exposure to radiation , chemicals, or viruses , or can occur deliberately under cellular control during processes such as meiosis or ...

Cell membrane

... represent other examples. References R.R. Dogonadze, Z.D. Urushadze, "Investigation of the Electrochemical Processes on the Border of division Electrolite-Biological Membrane", Dep. VINITI (No 3633-71), Moscow, 1971, 20 pp. (In Russian) Z.D. Urushadze, "The Charge Transfer Across the ...

Gamete

... producing gametes. Gametes from a mature diploid individual will be produced in the gonadal tissue through meiosis —a process of cellular division that reduces the number of sets of chromosomes from two to one (i.e., produces haploid gametes). The diploid somatic cells of an individual ...

Gene therapy

... of one of the original genes of the host cell, this gene will be disrupted. If the gene happens to be one regulating cell division, uncontrolled cell division (i.e., cancer ) can occur. Gene therapy trials to treat severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) were halted or restricted when leukemia was ...

Lambda phage

... a prophage and stays resident within the host's genome , without causing it much harm. This way, the prophage gets duplicated with every cell division of the host. The DNA of the prophage that is expressed in that state codes for proteins that look out for signs of stress in the host cell. Stress ...

Macroecology

... are less abundant tend to have restricted ranges) has received much attention. References Brown, J.H and B.A. Maurer. 1989. Macroecology: The division of food ad space among species on continents. Science 243: 1145-1150 Brown, J.H. 2000. Macroecology . University of Chicago Press. ISBN ...

Actin

... shorterning, or contraction, of the actin bundle (but not the filament). This mechanism is responsible for muscle contraction and cytokinesis , the division of one cell into two. Networks Actin networks, along with their actin-binding protein, filamin , form the cells cortex. This underlies the ...

Molecular evolution

... to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA ) of a cell . Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division and by exposure to radiation , chemicals, or viruses , or can occur deliberately under cellular control during the processes such as meiosis or ...

Morula

... in animals , including the 16-cell phase, the 32-cell phase, and the 64-cell phase. The morula is produced by embryonic cleavage , the rapid cell division of the zygote with virtually no growth. The morula is a solid ball; after the 64-cell phase, it develops into a hollow ball, the blastula . ...

Neuroscience

... , genetics , biochemistry , physiology , pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system . The study of behavior and learning is also a division of neuroscience. The biological study of the human brain is an interdisciplinary field which involves many levels of study, from the molecular ...

Oncogene

... increase in protein ( enzyme )activity a loss of regulation the creation of a hybrid protein , through a chromosomal aberration during cell division . A distinct aberration in a dividing stem cell in the bone marrow leads to adult leukemia An increase in protein concentration, caused ...

Paraphyletic

... the latter is used. Many of the older classifications contain paraphyletic groups, especially the traditional 2-6 kingdom systems and the classic division of the vertebrates . For example, the class Reptilia as traditionally defined is paraphyletic because that class does not include two groups of ...
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