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Diversity in Biological Definition

Biology

... of life 2.2 Physiology of organisms 2.3 diversity and evolution of organisms 2.3.1 ... unity, life exhibits an astonishing wide diversity in morphology , behavior and life histories . ... of neurology , immunology and the like. diversity and evolution of organisms In ...

Biodiversity

... Biodiversity or biological diversity is a neologism and a portmanteau word , from bio and diversity . It is the diversity of and in living nature . Diversity, at its ...

Evolution

... the evolutionary process is exceedingly slow, the diversity and complexity of modern life requires that the ... unrivaled and remarkable, but brief, organismal diversity documented in the fossils found at the Burgess ... As the scientific explanation of life's diversity has developed, it has often displaced ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... of MHC proteins 3 MHC evolution and allelic diversity 4 See also Introduction ... biologists, due to the high levels of allelic diversity found within many of its genes. Indeed, much ... of B cells. MHC evolution and allelic diversity MHC gene families are found in essentially all ...

Antibody

... as somatic recombination. This is when genes are selected (variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) for heavy chains, and only V and J for light chains) ... millions of B lymphoyctes. It is important to note that to produce such a diversity of antigen binding sites with a separate gene for each possible antigen, ...

Culture

... Cross-cultural communication Cultural bias Cultural diversity Cultural evolution Cultural imperialism Culture jamming ... December 12, 2004. UNESCO, " UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural diversity ", issued on International Mother Language Day , February 21 , 2002. ...

Evolutionary developmental biology

... evolutionary developmental biology done in this period, is that both the diversity of body plans and morphology in organisms across many phyla is not necessarily reflected in similar diversity at the at the level of the genetic sequences controlling development. ...

Extinction

... change in conditions. Effects that cause or reward a loss in genetic diversity can increase the chances of extinction of a species. Population bottlenecks can dramatically reduce genetic diversity by severly limiting the number of reproducing individuals and make ...

Gene pool

... that species or population. A large gene pool indicates a large genetic diversity , which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection . Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks ) can cause reduced fitness ...

Ion channel

... 1 Basic features 2 Biological role 2.1 diversity and activation 3 Detailed structure 4 History 5 See also ... In the search for any drug, ion channels are a favorite target. diversity and activation Voltage-gated channels sense the transmembrane ...

Nervous system

... 1 Anatomy 2 Vertebrate nervous systems 3 Nervous system diversity 4 See also Anatomy The nervous system consists basically ... stimulation of the digestive and geniturinary systems. Nervous system diversity The nervous system varies greatly among living animals. Cnidarians , ...

Protein

... 2 Functions 2.1 Mechanisms of protein regulation 3 diversity 4 Working with proteins 5 Protein and nutrition 5.1 ... binding of a ligand or some other aspect of the protein's function. diversity Proteins are generally large molecules, having molecular masses of up ...

Proteomics

... (~22,000 genes vs. ~200,000 proteins). The large increase in protein diversity is thought to be due to alternative splicing and post-translational modification of proteins. This discrepancy implies that protein diversity cannot be fully characterized by gene expression analysis alone, making ...

Alfred Russel Wallace

... , and asked him to review it. In it, Wallace describes a novel theory of what is now known as "natural selection," and proposes that it explains the diversity of life. It was essentially the same as the theory that Darwin had worked on for twenty years, but had yet to publish. Darwin wrote in a letter to ...

Alga

... it now appears that they share a common pigmented ancestor. The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but there is considerable diversity in chloroplasts among the group, some members presumably having acquired theirs from other sources. The Apicomplexa , a group of closely related ...

Allele frequency

... Allele frequency is a term of population genetics that is used in characterizing the genetic diversity of a species population , or equivalently the richness of its gene pool . Allele frequency is defined as follows: Given a) a particular ...

B cell

... on the cell membrane. Susumu Tonegawa won the 1987 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for demonstrating how B cells create the enormous diversity of antibodies from only a few genes. See also T lymphocyte Antibody ...

Bacterium

... Prentice Hall, 1986. Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR. Impact of Culture-Independent Studies on the Emerging Phylogenetic View of Bacterial diversity . J Bacteriol 1998;180:4765-4774. Fulltext / PMID 9733676 . External links Tree of Life Videos of bacteria swimming and tumbling, ...

Biotechnology

... agriculture , food science , and medicine . Of the many different definitions available, the one formulated by the UN Convention on Biological diversity is one of the broadest: Biotechnology is any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, ...

Cloning

... species is the need for nearly perfect DNA. Furthermore, if animals were cloned from one individual, the significant problem of lack of genetic diversity would still remain in the attempt to establish a breeding population. Commercial cloning While the promise of cloning extinct species has been ...

Developmental biology

... formed largely in the 1990s and is a synthesis of findings from molecular developmental biology and evolutionary biology which considers the diversity of organismal form in an evolutionary context. The findings of developmental biology can help to understand developmental malfunctions such as ...

DNA

... and one of four kinds of nucleobases ("bases"). Because DNA strands are composed of these nucleotide subunits, they are polymers . The diversity of the bases means that there are four kinds of nucleotides, which are commonly referred to by the identity of their bases. These are adenine (A), ...

Endosymbiont

... deposition. Previously thought to be a single species, molecular phylogenetic evidence over the past couple decades has shown there to be great diversity in Symbiodinium . In some cases there is specificity between host and Symbiodinium clade. More often, however, there is a ecological distribution ...

Endosymbiont

... deposition. Previously thought to be a single species, molecular phylogenetic evidence over the past couple decades has shown there to be great diversity in Symbiodinium . In some cases there is specificity between host and Symbiodinium clade. More often, however, there is a ecological distribution ...

Bacterium

... Prentice Hall, 1986. Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR. Impact of Culture-Independent Studies on the Emerging Phylogenetic View of Bacterial diversity . J Bacteriol 1998;180:4765-4774. Fulltext / PMID 9733676 . External links Tree of Life Videos of bacteria swimming and tumbling, ...

Fermentation

... . According to Steinkraus (1995), traditionally food fermentation serves five main purposes: "Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substrates" "Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid , alcoholic, acetic acid , ...

Genetic drift

... it acts on populations , altering the frequency of alleles and the predominance of traits amongst members of a population, and changing the diversity of the group. Drift is observed most strongly in small populations and results in changes that need not be adaptive . Contents ...

Glycome

... which is one of the most complex phenomena known to science. The glycome exceeds the complexity of the proteome as a result of the even greater diversity of the glycome's constituent carbohydrates and is further complicated by the sheer multiplicity of their possibilities of combination and interaction ...

Golgi apparatus

... the ER contain simplified glycosylated proteins. In the Golgi Apparatus, carbohydrates are attached and removed from these glycoproteins, creating a diversity of carbohydrate structures on the proteins. After they have been secreted in to the cell the vesicles fuse to the cell membrane and release their ...

Isozyme

... 146-164 in D. E. Soltis and P. S. Soltis, eds. Isozymes in plant biology. Dioscorides, Portland, Oregon. Hamrick, JL, and MJW Godt. 1990. Allozyme diversity in plant species. Pp. 43-63 in A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler and B. S. Weir, eds. Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic ...

Mathematical biology

... increasingly recognised that the result of such interactions may only be understood through mathematical and computational models. Due to the wide diversity of specific knowledge involved, biomathematical research is often done in collaboration between mathematicians, physicists, biologists, physicians, ...

Mycology

... MSA : Mycological Society of America (North America) British Mycological Society (United Kingdom) Centre for Research in Fungal diversity (Hong Kong, China) Amateur organizations North American Mycological Association Mycological Society of San Francisco ...

Parasitology

... populations of the same fish. This forms an interesting application of the Red Queen hypothesis . Taxonomy and phylogenetics The huge diversity within the parasitic animals creates a challenge for biologists to describe and catalogue them. Recent developments in using DNA to identify ...

Alga

... it now appears that they share a common pigmented ancestor. The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but there is considerable diversity in chloroplasts among the group, some members presumably having acquired theirs from other sources. The Apicomplexa , a group of closely related ...

Physiology

... . Plant physiology also borrows techniques from both fields. Its scope of subjects is at least as diverse as the tree of life itself. Due to this diversity of subjects, research in animal physiology tends to concentrate on understanding how physiological traits changed throughout the evolutionary history ...

Primary nutritional groups

... heterotrophically on the starch at night, which has been synthesised phototrophically during the day. On the contrary, procaryotes show a great diversity of nutritional categories. For example, purple S bacteria, or cyanobacteria are photolithoautotrophic, purple non-sulfur bacteria are ...

Spliceosome

... are spliced together. Alternative splicing Alternative splicing (the re-combination of different introns ) is a major source of genetic diversity in eukaryotes. For example alternative splicing is what makes our immune systems so diverse (much more diverse, for example, than a simple ...

Unsolved problems in biology

... ? What are the signs of current or past infection to discover where Ebola hides between human outbreaks? What is the origin of antibody diversity ? What leads to the complexity of the immune system ? What is the relationship between the immune system and the brain ? Humanity : Why are ...
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