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Distance in Biological Definition

Potential energy

... constant . If h is instead taken to be the distance from the center of the sphere, then outside the ... energy. Relative to this, an object at a finite distance r from a source of gravitation has negative ... forces try to keep the atoms at their optimal distance and so elastic potential is actually ...

Species

... the hybrid zone relative to the typical dispersal distance of the organisms in question. The dispersal distance of oaks , for example, is the distance that a bird or squirrel can be expected to ...

Bacterium

... diverse than, say, the mammals or insects . For instance, the genetic distance between E. coli and Thermus aquaticus is greater than the distance between humans and oak trees. See also Bacterial growth ...

DNA

... pairing of the bases, which also had the effect of ensuring that the distance between the phosphate chains did not vary along a sequence. Watson and Crick were able to discern that this distance was constant and to measure its exact value of 2 nanometres from an X-ray ...

Bacterium

... diverse than, say, the mammals or insects . For instance, the genetic distance between E. coli and Thermus aquaticus is greater than the distance between humans and oak trees. See also Bacterial growth ...

Wavelength

... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. It is commonly designated by ... letter lambda (λ). In a sine wave, the wavelength is the distance between peaks: The x axis represents distance, and I would be ...

Actin

... movement by usage of ADP. In contractile bundles, the actin-bundling protein actinin separates each filament by 40 nm . This increase in distance allows the motor protein myosin to interact with the filament, enabling deformation or contraction. In the first case, one end of myosin is bound ...

Gel electrophoresis

... lane in the gel parallel to the mixture(s), the bands it displays can be compared to those of the mixture(s) in order to determine their size. The distance a band travels is approximately inversely proportional to the log 10 of the size of the molecule. Types Gel electrophoresis is used in ...

Eye

... . Focusing In order for light rays to be brought to a focus they must be refracted . The amount of refraction required depends on the distance of the object which is being viewed. A distant object will require less bending of light than a nearer one. Most of the refraction occurs at the ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... A Proportional to the difference in partial pressures of the gas across the membrane , P 2 - P 1 Inversely proportional to the distance over which diffusion must take place, or in other words the thickness of the membrane, D . Fick's first law is also important in radiation ...

Gel electrophoresis

... lane in the gel parallel to the mixture(s), the bands it displays can be compared to those of the mixture(s) in order to determine their size. The distance a band travels is approximately inversely proportional to the log 10 of the size of the molecule. Types Gel electrophoresis is used in ...

Actin

... movement by usage of ADP. In contractile bundles, the actin-bundling protein actinin separates each filament by 40 nm . This increase in distance allows the motor protein myosin to interact with the filament, enabling deformation or contraction. In the first case, one end of myosin is bound ...

Microscope

... out close work such as sorting, dissection, microsurgery , watch-making, small circuit board manufacture or inspection, and the like. Great working distance and depth of field here are important qualities for this type of microscope. Both qualities are inversely correlated with resolution: the higher the ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... receiving multiple examinations. While CT provides superior spatial resolution (the ability to distinguish two structures an arbitrarily small distance from each other as separate), MRI provides far better contrast resolution (the ability to distinguish the differences between two arbitrarily ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... can easily determine which allele of a mutation or polymorphism an individual has. Here, one of the two primers is common, and would anneal a short distance away from the mutation, while the other anneals right on the variation. The 3' end of the allele-specific primer is modified, to only anneal if it ...

Photon

... In a vacuum , all photons move at the speed of light , c , defined as equal to 299,792,458 metres per second (the metre is defined as the distance travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second , so the speed of light does not suffer any experimental uncertainty, unlike the metre ...

Phylogenetic tree

... Links to other pictures are given in the Pictures on the Web subsection below. There are three main methods of constructing phylogenetic trees: distance based methods such as Neighbour Joining , Parsimony based methods such as Maximum Parsimony , and character based methods such as Maximum ...

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

... are then separated according to length by agarose gel electrophoresis . The resulting gel may be enhanced by Southern blotting . Result The distance between the locations cut by restriction enzymes (the restriction sites ) varies between individuals: so the length of the fragments varies, and the ...

Signal transduction

... that match the receptor are usually hexameric repeats, either normal, inverted or everted. The sequences are quite similar, but their orientation and distance are the parameters by which the DNA-binding domains of the receptors can tell them apart. Steroid receptors Steroid receptors are a ...

Trait

... is part of a very long and compacted string of DNA called a chromosome . An important reference point along this string is the centromere ; the distance from a gene to the centromere is referred to as the gene's locus or map location. A chromosomal region known to control a trait while the ...
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