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Diseases in Biological Definition

Blood

... phlegm , yellow bile and black bile ). As many diseases were thought to be due to an excess of blood, ... the blood. Pathology See also blood diseases Problems with blood circulation and ... (e.g. during surgery), as well as certain blood diseases like anemia and thalassemia , can require ...

Brain

... in the brain can be more accurately classified as diseases than injuries. Neurodegenerative diseases , such as Alzheimer's disease , Parkinson's ... abilities. Currently, only the symptoms of these diseases can be treated, but stem cell research may ...

Cartilage

... 5 Cartilage in fetal development 6 diseases / Medicine 7 See also 8 External links ... which is not substantiated by research. diseases / Medicine There are several diseases which can affect the cartilage. ...

Diabetes mellitus

... and perhaps the top 5, of the most significant diseases in the developed world, and is gaining in ... (NIDDM). It may be caused by a number of diseases , such as hemochromatosis and polycystic ovary ... related insulin resistance. Type 3C: diseases of the pancreas. Type 3D: caused by hormonal ...

Gene therapy

... tissues to treat a disease , and hereditary diseases in particular. Gene therapy typically aims to ... genes straight into human cells, focusing on diseases caused by single-gene defects, such as cystic ... individual. This technique is best used for diseases where the desired cells can be extracted easily, ...

Immunology

... system in immunological disorders ( autoimmune diseases , hypersensitivities , immune deficiency , ... immunology Clinical immunology is the study of diseases caused by the immune system and diseases of the immune system from a medical perspective. ...

Kidney

... . The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases affecting the kidney is called nephrology . ... 1.5 Terms 2 Renal functions 3 diseases and disorders 3.1 Congenital diseases of the kidneys 3.2 ...

Liver

... Fetal blood supply 2 Physiology 3 diseases of the liver 4 Liver transplantation 5 ... reach of science in the foreseeable future. diseases of the liver Many diseases of the liver are accompanied by jaundice caused ...

Louis Pasteur

... or oxygen . Immunology His later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera . During this ... and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of vaccines , to honour ... eventually leading to the eradication of the diseases typhus and polio as threats. Pasteurization ...

Muscle

... electrical activity in muscles). Neuromuscular diseases are those that affect the muscles and/or their ... disease to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . diseases of the motor end plate include myasthenia gravis ... tone, respectively. The myopathies are all diseases affecting the muscle itself, rather than its ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... of tasks, such as the detection of hereditary diseases , the identification of genetic fingerprints , the diagnosis of infectious diseases , the cloning of genes , and paternity ... Paternity testing 4.3 Detection of hereditary diseases 4.4 Cloning genes 4.5 Mutagenesis 4.6 ...

Prion

... number of previously known but little-understood diseases generally classified under transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases (TSEs) , including scrapie (a disease of sheep ... encephalopathy (mad cow disease). These diseases affect the structure of brain tissue and are ...

Promoter

... 2.2 Eukaryotic promoters 3 Binding 4 diseases Associated with Aberrant Promoter Function ... K = 10E7 RP(closed) RP(open). K = 10E-2 diseases Associated with Aberrant Promoter Function ... gene sequence and susceptibility to hundreds of diseases , it requires a sophisticated search strategy to ...

Stem cell

... being used in treatments for over one hundred diseases and conditions. They are more accurately called ... This could lead to new treatments and cures for diseases like Lou Gehrig's disease , muscular dystrophy ... cells have successfully treated over one hundred diseases and conditions. Opponents of embryonic stem cell ...

Vaccine

... DNA of the other, immunity can be created against diseases that have complex infection processes In ... Smallpox , one of the most contagious and deadly diseases known to man. Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, ...

Virus

... reproduction 6 Origins 7 Human viral diseases 7.1 Laboratory diagnosis of pathogenic viruses 7.2 Prevention and treatment of viral diseases 8 See also 9 References 9.1 ... that they are studying. Attempts to treat human diseases through genetic engineering have also made use of ...

Antibody

... avoid them. This is the reason for the chronic nature of many minor skin diseases (such as cold sores ); any given outbreak is quickly suppressed by the ... monoclonal antibody therapy is already being employed in a number of diseases (including rheumatoid arthritis ) and in some forms of cancer . ...

Botany

... that study the growth , reproduction , metabolism , development , diseases , and evolution of plants . Nearly all the food we eat ... of willow trees, is just one example. There may be many novel cures for diseases provided by plants, waiting to be discovered. Popular stimulants like ...

Cancer

... Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division and the ability of these ... of cancer have a prognosis that is substantially better than nonmalignant diseases such as heart failure and stroke . Nonetheless, in the late 1990's ...

Eugenics

... Care Law" which included mandatory pre-marital screenings for "genetic diseases of a serious nature" and "relevant mental disease." Those who are diagnosed with such diseases are required either to not marry or to agree to "long term contraceptive ...

Fungus

... mild itching to death . Other parasitic fungi infect plants , causing diseases such as butt rot and making trees more vulnerable to toppling. The vast ... are actually given species names. Pathogenic species Fungal diseases include: brown rot chestnut blight ergot fusarium ...

Human Genome Project

... including breast cancer , blood clotting , cystic fibrosis , liver diseases and many others. There are also many tangible benefits for biological ... with other genes, body tissues in which this gene is activated, diseases associated with this ... the list of datatypes is long, one reason why ...

Insulin

... 5 Signal transduction 6 The brain and hypoglycemia 7 diseases and syndromes caused by an insulin disturbance 8 Insulin as a ... level) external insulin (usually injected subcutaneously) diseases and syndromes caused by an insulin disturbance There are several ...

Systems biology

... made within a cell . The properties of these cells can determine the diseases to which a person is susceptible. Therefore, a given disease exhibited by ... of human biology to identify strategies for predicting and preventing diseases such as cancer, diabetes and AIDS. See also artificial life ...

X chromosome

... or by structural changes in the chromosomes. Other conditions Many diseases are due to mutations on the X chromosome. These are characteristic as ... and their sons have a 50% chance of inheriting that X chromosome. diseases well known for their X-linked recessive inheritance are hemophilia ...

Antibiotic

... rapidly discovered and came into widespread use, and a new era of research into the possibility of similarly "magic" chemotherapeutic cures for other diseases eventually led to successes in the field of cancer chemotherapy. The discovery of antibiotics, along with anesthesia and the adoption of ...

Apoptosis

... vitality of cells used for cell therapy. Abnormal apoptosis and clearance of apoptotic cells is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases including cancer, neuro-degenerative and ischemic diseases, AIDS and autoimmunity. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) the antigen responsible for ...

Biology

... study of plants . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study the growth , reproduction , metabolism , development , diseases , and evolution of plant life . Zoology is the discipline which involves the study of animals , which includes the physiology of animals is ...

Biotechnology

... applied to medical processes. An example would include an organism designed to produce an antibiotic , or engineering genetic cures to diseases through genomic manipulation . White biotechnology , also known as grey biotechnology , is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. ...

Chromosome

... appearance to the chest. XYY syndrome Triple-X syndrome You can find a detailed graphical display of all human chromosomes and the diseases annotated at the correct spot at [2] . See also XY sex-determination system Genetic deletion External links What Can Our ...

Down syndrome

... small, as is the superior temporal gyrus . Educational progress may also be damaged by illness and disabilities, such as recurring infectious diseases , heart problems, poor eyesight, and hearing problems. Other physical characteristics associated with the disorder include presence of a simian ...

Genetics

... discoveries, but many remain intact and in use, such as Mendel's laws . Patterns of inheritence still remain a useful tool for the study of genetic diseases . Molecular genetics Main article: Molecular genetics Molecular genetics builds upon the foundation of classical genetics but focuses on ...

Guthrie test

... The Guthrie test is a series of medical tests performed on newborns to detect several metabolic diseases . It is named after the U.S. bacteriologist Robert Guthrie , who first described it in 1963. The test is performed on blood samples taken from ...

Hormone

... and progestagens (in the contraceptive pill and as HRT ), thyroxine (as levothyroxine , for hypothyroidism ) and steroids (for autoimmune diseases and several respiratory disorders ). Insulin is used by many diabetics . Local preparations for use in otolaryngology often contain ...

Lipase

... lysosomal lipase, hepatic lipase, gastric lipase, endothelial lipase, as well as various different phospholipases. At least three human genetic diseases are caused by mutations in lipase genes. Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene encoding lipoprotein lipase [2] . ...

Malaria

... site on malaria Malaria Vaccine Initiative Malaria. The UNICEF-UNDP-World Bank-WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical diseases story of the discovery of the vector of the malarial parasite History of discoveries in malaria New Scientist - New Malaria Vaccine ...

Mitochondrion

... ammonia , a waste product of protein metabolism. A mutation in the genes regulating any of these functions can result in a variety of mitochondrial diseases . Energy conversion As stated above, the primary function of the mitochondria is the production of ATP . This is done by metabolizing the ...

Mitochondrion

... ammonia , a waste product of protein metabolism. A mutation in the genes regulating any of these functions can result in a variety of mitochondrial diseases . Energy conversion As stated above, the primary function of the mitochondria is the production of ATP . This is done by metabolizing the ...

Mycology

... cycle . Fungi and other organisms traditionally recognized as fungal often are economically and socially important as they are responsible for diseases of animals as well as plants like Potato blight (actually, an oomycete ). Field expeditions to find interesting types of fungi (often edible ...

Neuroscience

... and careful analysis of behavior. Neurobiology of disease - This field, directly aligned with medical research, is interested in curing any diseases associated with the nervous system. Other related and overlapping fields include: Aphasiology Brain imaging Computational ...
Other Contents
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