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Direct in Biological Definition

Promoter

... , silencers , boundary elements /insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. ... control where the promoter is believed to have direct involvement. This is a list of diseases that ... of promoter malfunction, either through direct mutation of a promoter sequence or mutation in ...

Extinction

... is no longer able to survive and becomes extinct. This may occur by direct effects, such as the environment becoming toxic , or indirectly, by ... For example, a fern that depends on dense shade for protection from direct sunlight can no longer survive with no forest to house it. Diminished ...

Rudolf Steiner

... be provided for by private and|or state scholarships that a family could direct to the school of its choice. Steiner was a supporter of educational ... world, Steiner held, can in the right circumstances be researched through direct experience, by persons practicing rigorous forms of ethical and cognitive ...

Signal transduction

... how many ways it can react and respond to its environment. In a less direct way the same is true of animals and plants . Sensing in all forms of ... are two different ways in which Ca 2+ can regulate proteins: A direct recognition of Ca 2+ by the protein. Binding of Ca 2+ in the ...

Vestibular system

... canals are sent as directly as possible to the eye muscles. This direct connection involves only three neurons, and is correspondingly called Three-neuron-arc (Fig 3). Using these direct connections, eye movements lag the head movements by less than 10 ms, one ...

Active transport

... life is the sodium-potassium pump , which helps maintain the cell potential . Secondary In secondary active transport, there is no direct coupling of ATP; instead, the electrochemical potential difference created by pumping ions out of cells is used. The two main forms of this are ...

Alcohol

... Fermentation : using glucose from the hydrolysis of starch , in the presence of yeast and temperature of <37C to produce ethanol. direct hydration : using ethene or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil . Uses a catalyst of phosphoric acid under high ...

Barr body

... state of the Barr body. These changes include histone modifications, such as histone H3 methylation and histone H2A ubiquitylation , as well as direct modification of the DNA itself, via the methylation of CpG sites . These changes help inactivate gene expression on the inactive X-chromosome and ...

Biologist

... of Labor.) Training Many positions in biology as a field require an academic degree . A PhD (or equivalent) is generally required to direct independent research but a bachelor's or master's degree is sufficient for most non-research positions. Training on the undergraduate level usually ...

Biomechanics

... with a cardiac infarct, and bone growth in response to exercise have been widely regarded as instances in which living tissue is remodeling as a direct consequence of applied loads. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Applications 2 Continuum Mechanics 3 Biomechanics of ...

Blood

... is bacteremia or sepsis . Malaria and trypanosomiasis are blood-borne parasitic infections. Treatment Blood transfusion is the most direct therapeutic use of blood. It is obtained from volunteers by blood donation . As there are different blood types , and transfusion of the incorrect ...

Diabetes mellitus

... diabetes mellitus type 2 can be evaded in those with only mildly impaired glucose tolerance 6 . Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus require direct injection of insulin as their bodies cannot produce enough (or even any) insulin. As of 2004, there is no other clinically available form of insulin ...

Dialysis

... sterilized and reused with the same patient at a later date). Needle wounds (in case of fistula) are bandaged with gauze, held for up to 1 hour with direct pressure to stop bleeding, then the taped in place. It's just like getting blood draw, only it takes a lot longer, and more fluid/Blood is lost. ...

Ebola

... about this form of Ebola since only one case of it has been discovered. Ebola hemorrhagic fever Among humans, the virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected body fluids such as blood. The cause of the index case is unknown. The incubation period of Ebola haemorrhagic fever ...

Warm-blooded

... can come into play to regulate body temperature, such as shivering (to generate heat from muscle contractions), blanching (circulatory changes to direct less heat to the skin), flushing (circulatory changes to radiate more heat from the skin), panting or sweating (to increase heat loss through ...

Enzyme

... sites that serve regulatory functions, which increase or inhibit the enzyme's activity. These typically bind metals or small molecules, often direct or indirect products or substrates of the reaction catalyzed. This provides a means for feedback to keep the products and substrates in proper ...

Fermentation

... no oxygen is available, ethanol and lactic acid is used in place of oxygen . Bacteria generally produce acids. Vinegar ( acetic acid ) is the direct result of bacterial fermentation. In milk, the acid coagulates the casein , producing curds. In pickling, the acid preserves the food from ...

Foot and mouth disease

... transmit it to others. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease tends to occur locally, that is, the virus is passed on to susceptible animals through direct contact with infected animals or with contaminated pens or vehicles used to transport livestock. The clothes and skin of animal handlers such as ...

Genomics

... known. While these numbers come from various secondary sources, the data may have originated from measures of DNA-DNA hybridization or from direct sequence comparisons. Species Similarity Source Human 99.9% quoted by President Clinton, Jan 2000, State of the Union address; ...

Immune system

... toll like receptors , getting their "second signal" directly from the antigen. In this way they actually recognize in "first person" the danger and direct the T killer attack. In this way, the innate immune system plays a critical role in the activation of the adaptive immune system. Adjuvants , or ...

Isozyme

... widely used Molecular markers for this purpose. Although they have now been largely superseded by more informative DNA -based approaches (such as direct DNA sequencing , Single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites ), they are still amongst the quickest and cheapest marker systems to ...

Lung

... to the lungs themselves, birds have posterior and anterior air sacs (typically nine) which control air flow through the lungs, but do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They have a flow through respiration system. When a bird inhales, air flows in through the trachea to the posterior air sacs, ...

Lytic cycle

... make many copies of the virus. In the case of DNA viruses, the DNA transcribes itself into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are then used to direct the ribosome. In retroviruses , or RNA viruses, a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase transcribes the viral RNA into DNA, which is then ...

Olfaction

... nose and the mouth. Snakes use it to smell prey, sticking their tongue out and touching it to the organ. Some mammals make a face called flehmen to direct air to this organ. In humans, the detection of pheromones is subliminal. These subliminal odor messages may transmit opposite immunological sexual ...

Prion

... PrP C to PrP SC by bringing a molecule of each of the two together into a complex. An alternative idea is that prion propagation does not require direct action of a prion protein on a normal protein, but rather results from a positive feedback loop during the biosynthesis of PrP. In this view, the ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... descendant species should appear suddenly by migration from a peripheral region in which it evolved. In the peripheral region itself, we might find direct evidence of speciation, but such good fortune would be rare indeed because the event occurs so rapidly in such a small population." An unstated ...

Blood type

... a special dominance relationship: codominance . Thus, it is usually impossible for a type AB parent to have a type O child (it is, however, no direct proof of illegitimacy ). Evolutionary biologists theorize that the A allele evolved earliest, followed by O and then B . This chronology ...

RNA

... 5' -ACUCGA- 3' and 5'-UCGAGU-3'), so that the two strands bind together. This allows the formation of hairpin loops , coils, etc., which then direct the formation of higher-order structures. Synthesis RNA is made by an enzyme , RNA polymerase , using DNA as a template. The synthesis ...

Robert Koch

... with very limited resources, he became one of the founders of bacteriology , the other being Louis Pasteur . After Casimir Davaine showed the direct transmission of the anthrax bacillus between cows, Koch studied anthrax more closely. He invented methods to purify the bacillus from blood ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... be a mental illness and would be classified, instead, as a symptom of a bodily disease." The mode of action of these antidepressant drugs on their direct target, the serotonin transport protein, and possible regulatory mechanisms with respect to long-term alleviation of depression, although having been ...

Virus

... has entered a host cell, it is called a virion — a package of viral genetic material. Virions can be passed from host to host either through direct contact or through a vector , or carrier. Inside the organism, the virus can enter a cell in various ways. Bacteriophages —bacterial ...
Other Contents
(Date:4/17/2014)... NY, April 17, 2014The development of stem cell therapies ... ability to characterize stem cell populations based on cell ... discovered a new marker that is highly expressed in ... cord blood, which they describe in an article in ... Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... births, Down syndrome - or trisomy 21 - is ... results from a chromosomal abnormality where cells of affected ... of the human genome). A study conducted by Stylianos ... Medicine and Development at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) ... light on how the extra chromosome 21 upsets the ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... White House honored Clemson professor Rajendra Singh Thursday ... to promote and expand solar deployment in the ... D. Houser Banks Professor of Electrical and Computer ... Nanoelectronics, is considered a local hero leading the ... economic opportunity in solar power and driving policy ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Trisomy 21: How an extra little chromosome throws the entire genome off balance 2Trisomy 21: How an extra little chromosome throws the entire genome off balance 3White House honors Clemson professor as 'Champion of Change' for solar deployment 2
(Date:4/17/2014)... California, San Diego School of Medicine report that older ... recent major loss are more likely to be compassionate ... is published in this month,s issue of the ... behaviors are associated with better health and well-being as ... to improve the outcomes of individuals whose deficits in ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... synthetic biology team has created a new technology ... that could travel the body and selectively target ... cell-based, biological devices that monitor and modify human ... biology. However, no existing technology enabled bioengineers to ... state and respond in a customized fashion. , ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... (April 16, 2014) The cause of neuronal death ... study proposes that neurons may be mistaken for foreign ... similar to the way autoimmune diseases like type I ... cells. The study was published April 16, 2014, in ... and likely controversial, idea in Parkinson,s disease; but if ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... YORK April 17, 2014 EcoHealth Alliance, a ... health issues, published a comprehensive review today examining the ... Marburg virus. The review calls for improved global surveillance ... as the recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa ... the countries of Guinea and Liberia. According to ...
(Date:4/17/2014)... Population Council scientists and their partners have found that ... prevent the transmission of multiple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) ... herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and human papillomavirus (HPV). ... the gel is effective against multiple strains of HIV, ... against all three viruses of at least eight hours ...
Breaking Medicine News(10 mins):Health News:The ilk of human kindness 2Health News:Building 'smart' cell-based therapies 2Health News:Is Parkinson's an autoimmune disease? 2Health News:Re-emergence of Ebola focuses need for global surveillance strategies 2Health News:Re-emergence of Ebola focuses need for global surveillance strategies 3Health News:Animal study provides first evidence that gel can prevent multiple virus transmission in vagina/rectum 2
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