... , silencers , boundary elements /insulators) to direct
the level of transcription of a given gene.
... control where the promoter is believed to have direct
involvement. This is a list of diseases that ... of promoter malfunction, either through direct
mutation of a promoter sequence or mutation in ...
... is no longer able to survive and becomes extinct. This may occur by direct
effects, such as the environment becoming toxic , or indirectly, by ... For example, a fern that depends on dense shade for protection from direct
sunlight can no longer survive with no forest to house it.
... be provided for by private and|or state scholarships that a family could direct
to the school of its choice. Steiner was a supporter of educational ... world, Steiner held, can in the right circumstances be researched through direct
experience, by persons practicing rigorous forms of ethical and cognitive ...
... how many ways it can react and respond to its environment. In a less direct
way the same is true of animals and plants . Sensing in all forms of ... are two different ways in which Ca 2+ can regulate proteins:
recognition of Ca 2+ by the protein.
Binding of Ca 2+ in the ...
... canals are sent as directly as possible to the eye
muscles. This direct
connection involves only three neurons, and is correspondingly called
Three-neuron-arc (Fig 3). Using these direct
connections, eye movements lag the head movements by
less than 10 ms, one ...
... life is the sodium-potassium pump , which helps maintain the cell potential .
In secondary active transport, there is no direct
coupling of ATP; instead, the electrochemical potential difference created by pumping ions out of cells is used. The two main forms of this are ...
Fermentation : using glucose from the hydrolysis of starch , in the presence of yeast and temperature of <37C to produce ethanol.
hydration : using ethene or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil . Uses a catalyst of phosphoric acid under high ...
... state of the Barr body. These changes include histone modifications, such as histone H3 methylation and histone H2A ubiquitylation , as well as direct
modification of the DNA itself, via the methylation of CpG sites . These changes help inactivate gene expression on the inactive X-chromosome and ...
... of Labor.)
Many positions in biology as a field require an academic degree . A PhD (or equivalent) is generally required to direct
independent research but a bachelor's or master's degree is sufficient for most non-research positions. Training on the undergraduate level usually ...
... with a cardiac infarct, and bone growth in response to exercise have been widely regarded as instances in which living tissue is remodeling as a direct
consequence of applied loads.
2 Continuum Mechanics
3 Biomechanics of ...
... is bacteremia or sepsis . Malaria and trypanosomiasis are blood-borne parasitic infections.
Blood transfusion is the most direct
therapeutic use of blood. It is obtained from volunteers by blood donation . As there are different blood types , and transfusion of the incorrect ...
... diabetes mellitus type 2 can be evaded in those with only mildly impaired glucose tolerance 6 .
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus require direct
injection of insulin as their bodies cannot produce enough (or even any) insulin. As of 2004, there is no other clinically available form of insulin ...
... sterilized and reused with the same patient at a later date). Needle wounds (in case of fistula) are bandaged with gauze, held for up to 1 hour with direct
pressure to stop bleeding, then the taped in place. It's just like getting blood draw, only it takes a lot longer, and more fluid/Blood is lost.
... about this form of Ebola since only one case of it has been discovered.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever
Among humans, the virus is transmitted by direct
contact with infected body fluids such as blood. The cause of the index case is unknown.
The incubation period of Ebola haemorrhagic fever ...
... can come into play to regulate body temperature, such as shivering (to generate heat from muscle contractions), blanching (circulatory changes to direct
less heat to the skin), flushing (circulatory changes to radiate more heat from the skin), panting or sweating (to increase heat loss through ...
... sites that serve regulatory functions, which increase or inhibit the enzyme's activity. These typically bind metals or small molecules, often direct
or indirect products or substrates of the reaction catalyzed. This provides a means for feedback to keep the products and substrates in proper ...
... no oxygen is available, ethanol and lactic acid is used in place of oxygen .
Bacteria generally produce acids. Vinegar ( acetic acid ) is the direct
result of bacterial fermentation. In milk, the acid coagulates the casein , producing curds. In pickling, the acid preserves the food from ...
Foot and mouth disease
... transmit it to others.
Infection with foot-and-mouth disease tends to occur locally, that is, the virus is passed on to susceptible animals through direct
contact with infected animals or with contaminated pens or vehicles used to transport livestock. The clothes and skin of animal handlers such as ...
While these numbers come from various secondary sources, the data may have originated from measures of DNA-DNA hybridization or from direct
Species Similarity Source
Human 99.9% quoted by President Clinton, Jan 2000, State of the Union address; ...
... toll like receptors , getting their "second signal" directly from the antigen. In this way they actually recognize in "first person" the danger and direct
the T killer attack.
In this way, the innate immune system plays a critical role in the activation of the adaptive immune system.
Adjuvants , or ...
... widely used Molecular markers for this purpose. Although they have now been largely superseded by more informative DNA -based approaches (such as direct
DNA sequencing , Single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites ), they are still amongst the quickest and cheapest marker systems to ...
... to the lungs themselves, birds have posterior and anterior air sacs (typically nine) which control air flow through the lungs, but do not play a direct
role in gas exchange. They have a flow through respiration system.
When a bird inhales, air flows in through the trachea to the posterior air sacs, ...
... make many copies of the virus. In the case of DNA viruses, the DNA transcribes itself into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that are then used to direct
the ribosome. In retroviruses , or RNA viruses, a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase transcribes the viral RNA into DNA, which is then ...
... nose and the mouth. Snakes use it to smell prey, sticking their tongue out and touching it to the organ. Some mammals make a face called flehmen to direct
air to this organ. In humans, the detection of pheromones is subliminal. These subliminal odor messages may transmit opposite immunological sexual ...
... PrP C to PrP SC by bringing a molecule of each of the two together into a complex. An alternative idea is that prion propagation does not require direct
action of a prion protein on a normal protein, but rather results from a positive feedback loop during the biosynthesis of PrP. In this view, the ...
... descendant species should appear suddenly by migration from a peripheral region in which it evolved. In the peripheral region itself, we might find direct
evidence of speciation, but such good fortune would be rare indeed because the event occurs so rapidly in such a small population."
An unstated ...
... a special dominance relationship: codominance . Thus, it is usually impossible for a type AB parent to have a type O child (it is, however, no direct
proof of illegitimacy ).
Evolutionary biologists theorize that the A allele evolved earliest, followed by O and then B . This chronology ...
... 5' -ACUCGA- 3' and 5'-UCGAGU-3'), so that the two strands bind together. This allows the formation of hairpin loops , coils, etc., which then direct
the formation of higher-order structures.
RNA is made by an enzyme , RNA polymerase , using DNA as a template. The synthesis ...
... with very limited resources, he became one of the founders of bacteriology , the other being Louis Pasteur .
After Casimir Davaine showed the direct
transmission of the anthrax bacillus between cows, Koch studied anthrax more closely. He invented methods to purify the bacillus from blood ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
... be a mental illness and would be classified, instead, as a symptom of a bodily disease."
The mode of action of these antidepressant drugs on their direct
target, the serotonin transport protein, and possible regulatory mechanisms with respect to long-term alleviation of depression, although having been ...
... has entered a host cell, it is called a virion — a package of viral genetic material. Virions can be passed from host to host either through direct
contact or through a vector , or carrier. Inside the organism, the virus can enter a cell in various ways. Bacteriophages —bacterial ...