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Cytoplasm in Biological Definition

Cell nucleus

... to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm and to store information needed for cellular ... separating the chemical reactions taking place in cytoplasm from reactions happening within the nucleus. The ... consistency (similar in this respect to the cytoplasm ), in which many substances are dissolved. These ...

Cytoplasm

... cytoplasm is the colloidal , semi-fluid matter contained ... suspended. In contrast to the protoplasm , the cytoplasm does not include the cell nucleus , the interior ... made up of nucleoplasm . Components of the cytoplasm The aqueous component of ...

Cell biology

... Movement of proteins Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the cytoplasm . This process is also known as protein biosynthesis or simply protein ... See also Active transport Adhesion Chloroplast Cilia cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic reticulum Flagella Glycolysis ...

RNA

... in eukaryotes ) from a gene 's DNA (in eukaryotes exported into the cytoplasm ) and is used to encode proteins. RNA genes are genes that encode ... has been transcribed from DNA, it is exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm (in eukaryotes mRNA is "processed" before being exported), where it is ...

Alga

... creating Earth's oxygen atmosphere. They have a prokaryotic cell structure typical of bacteria and conduct photosynthesis directly within the cytoplasm , rather than in specialized organelles. Eukaryotic algae All other algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane-bound ...

Cell growth

... cell. Typical stem cells reproduce, double in size, then reproduce again. Most Cytosolic contents such as the endomembrane system and the cytoplasm easily scale to larger sizes in larger cells. If a cell becomes too large, the normal cellular amount of DNA may not be adequate to keep the cell ...

Cellular respiration

... one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate , and makes energy in the form of two molecules of ATP . Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell . The overall reaction can be expressed this way: Glucose + 2 NAD + + 2 ADP + 2 P i → 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O ...

Chloroplast

... chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with four membrane layers. The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma , corresponding to the cytoplasm of the bacterium, and contains tiny circular DNA and ribosomes , though most of their proteins are synthesized by the cell nucleus. Within the ...

Citric acid cycle

... 1953 . Location of cycle and inputs and outputs The citric acid cycle takes place within the mitochondria in eukaryotes , and within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel molecule catabolism (including glycolysis ) produces acetyl-CoA , a two- carbon acetyl group bound to coenzyme A ...

Cytoskeleton

... The cytoskeleton is a cellular " scaffolding " or " skeleton " contained, as all other organelles , within the cytoplasm . It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, enables some cell motion (using structures such as flagella and cilia ), and plays ...

Cytosol

... The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm , which also includes the organelles ) is the internal fluid of the cell , and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within ...

DNA

... reproduction , it is replicated and transmitted to offspring. In bacteria and other simple cell organisms, DNA is not separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope . In the complex cells that make up plants , animals and in other multi-celled organisms , by contrast, most of the DNA ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers ...

Flagellum

... the animal cells. The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma membrane , so that the interior of the flagellum is accessible to the cell's cytoplasm . This is necessary because the flagellum's flexing is driven by the protein dynein bridging the microtubules all along its length and forcing them ...

Intermediate filament

... IFs can be found in fibroblasts and endothelial cells , they support the cell membrane and keep some organelles in a fixed place within the cytoplasm . Peripherin found in peripheral neurons. GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) in glial cells . Neurofilaments These are found in ...

Nucleoplasm

... Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell , the nucleus contains nucleoplasm . The nucleoplasm is a highly viscous solid containing the chromosomes and nucleoli. ...

Citric acid cycle

... 1953 . Location of cycle and inputs and outputs The citric acid cycle takes place within the mitochondria in eukaryotes , and within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel molecule catabolism (including glycolysis ) produces acetyl-CoA , a two- carbon acetyl group bound to coenzyme A ...

Meiosis

... disappearance of spindles and spindle fibres as well as the uncoiling of the chromatids and the reformation of the nuclear membrane. Pinching of the cytoplasm or the formation of cell walls occurs, as in mitosis. Cytokinesis may occur. Note that many plants simply skip telophase I and interphase II, going ...

Organelle

... In cell biology , an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell . Organelles were historically identified through the use of some form of microscopy and were also identified through the ...

Alga

... creating Earth's oxygen atmosphere. They have a prokaryotic cell structure typical of bacteria and conduct photosynthesis directly within the cytoplasm , rather than in specialized organelles. Eukaryotic algae All other algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane-bound ...

Plasmolysis

... the cell membrane and the cell wall enlarges and the plasma membrane and the protoplasm within it contract to the center of the cell. Strands of cytoplasm extend to the cell wall because of plasma membrane-cell wall attachment points. If plasmolysed cells are not transferred quickly from the salt or ...

Protein biosynthesis

... the termination stage, modifications are required for the newly transcribed mRNA to be able to travel to the other parts of the cell, including cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum . A 5’ cap is added to the mRNA to protect it from degradation. A poly-A tail is added on the 3’ end for ...

Pseudopod

... microfilaments . Axopodia , observed mainly at radiolarians , are thin pseudopods contain complex arrays of microtubules and are enveloped by cytoplasm . Axopodia are responsible for phagocytosis, by rapidly retracting in response to physical contacts. Reticulopodia , also known as reticulose ...

Ribosome

... (e.g., a protein ). It can be thought of as a factory that builds a protein from a set of genetic instructions. Ribosomes can float freely in the cytoplasm (the internal fluid of the cell) or bind to another organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum . Since ribosomes are ribozymes , it is thought ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers ...

Signal transduction

... impulses that travel along nerves . Nuclear receptors Nuclear (or cytoplasmic) receptors are soluble proteins localized within the cytoplasm or the nucleoplasm . The hormone has to pass through the plasma membrane, usually by passive diffusion, to reach the receptor and initiate the ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers ...

Sperm

... Individual spermatozoa are highly differentiated cells, composed normally of a head, basal body (or midpiece ), and tail . The head contains some cytoplasm and the nuclear material for fertilization . The basal body contains a large concentration of mitochondria that provide the energy for sperm ...

Trait

... as stated by Francis Crick . This information flow may also be followed through the Cell as it travels from the DNA in the Nucleus , to the cytoplasm , to the Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum , and finally to the Golgi Apparatus , which may package the final products for export outside ...

Vacuole

... of auxins , this now less rigid wall is expanded by the pressure coming from within the cell. Yet another function is that it pushes all the cell's cytoplasm against the cellular membrane, and thus keeps the chloroplasts closer to light. The different roles of the central vacuole are summarized in ...

Virus

... The virus attaches to receptors on the host cell wall. Injection: The nucleic acid of the virus moves through the plasma membrane and into the cytoplasm of the host cell. The capsid of a phage , a bacterial virus, remains on the outside. In contrast, many viruses that infect animal cells enter the ...
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