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Conversion in Biological Definition

Diabetes mellitus

... glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage. Insulin is also the principal control signal for conversion of glucose (the basic sugar unit) to glycogen ... Lowered insulin levels result in the reverse conversion of glycogen to glucose when glucose levels fall ...

Y chromosome

... percent identical. The extensive use of gene conversion appears to play a role in the ability of the Y ... demonstrated that the same phenomenon of gene conversion appeared to be at work more than 5 million years ... Rozen, S., et. al. (2003) Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y ...

Metabolism

... of food . Carbohydrate catabolism Glycogenolysis , the conversion of glycogen into glucose . Glycolysis , the conversion of glucose into pyruvate and ATP, does not require oxygen . ...

Mitochondrion

... mitochondrial matrix 2 Mitochondrial functions 2.1 Energy conversion 2.1.1 Pyruvate: the Krebs cycle 2.1.2 NADH and FADH2: the ... functions can result in a variety of mitochondrial diseases . Energy conversion As stated above, the primary function of the mitochondria is the ...

Mitochondrion

... mitochondrial matrix 2 Mitochondrial functions 2.1 Energy conversion 2.1.1 Pyruvate: the Krebs cycle 2.1.2 NADH and FADH2: the ... functions can result in a variety of mitochondrial diseases . Energy conversion As stated above, the primary function of the mitochondria is the ...

Coenzyme A

... . Its main task is conveying the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production. The conversion of pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA is referred to as the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Reaction. It is catalyzed by an enzyme-complex called pyruvate ...

Alcohol

... If primary or secondary alcohols are to be reacted with hydrochloric acid , an activator such as zinc chloride is needed. Alternatively the conversion may be performed directly using thionyl chloride . [1] Alcohols may likewise be converted to alkyl bromides using hydrobromic acid or ...

Antibiotic

... dyes. One of these was a sulfonamide , prontosil , which was used to treat infections in humans, where its effect was found to be due to its conversion in the host to the active form, sulfanilimide . By today's more broad definition, this would likely qualify as the first successful use of an oral ...

Biodiversity

... collapse if it further reduced in complexity. Some justify this situation not so much by a species overuse or ecosystem degradation than by their conversion in very standardized ecosystems (e.g., monoculture following deforestation ). Before 1992, others pointed out that no property rights or no ...

Cellular respiration

... be expressed this way: Glucose + 2 NAD + + 2 ADP + 2 P i → 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O + 4 H + The individual steps of the conversion of glucose into pyruvate are (in brief): A glucose molecule from the hydrolysation of starch or glycogen is phosphorylated using one ATP molecule ...

Charles Darwin

... Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin (London: Michael Joseph, the Penguin Group, 1991 ). ISBN 0-7181-3430-3 The Darwin Deathbed conversion Question Richard Keynes, Fossils, Finches and Fuegians: Charles Darwin's Adventures and Discoveries on the Beagle, 1832-1836 . ( London: ...

Enzyme

... enzyme comes from Greek : " in ferment ". As early as the late 1700s and early 1800s the digestion of meat by stomach secretions and the conversion of starch to sugars by plant extracts and saliva were observed. Studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Louis Pasteur came to ...

Insulin

... – forces reduction of protein degradation; lack of insulin increases protein degradation, decreased lipolysis – forces reduction in conversion of fat cell lipid stores into blood fatty acids; lack of insulin causes the reverse decreased gluconeogenesis – decreases production of ...

Lac repressor

... in bacteria as long as glucose is available. When glucose is scarce and lactose is plentiful the lac repressor becomes inactive to permit the conversion of lactose to glucose. Human DNA encodes recipes for making various types of RNA which in turn make various types of proteins. But human ...

Neurotransmitter

... these neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap longer. Prozac is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, hence potentiating its effect. AMPT prevents the conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA , the precursor to dopamine; reserpine prevents dopamine storage within vesicles; and deprenyl inhibits monoamine oxidase ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... Each FADH 2 molecule is worth 2 ATP. All together, the 10 NADH and 2 FADH 2 molecules contributed through oxidation of glucose ( glycolysis , conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA , and the Krebs cycle ) account for 34 of the 38 total ATP energy carrier molecules. It is worth noting that these ATP ...

Pentose phosphate pathway

... phase 4 See also Oxidative phase In this phase, two molecules of NADPH + are reduced to NADPH , utilising the energy from the conversion of glucose 6- phosphate into ribose 5-phosphate. The overall reaction for this process is: Glucose 6-phosphate + 2 NADPH + + H 2 O → ...

Phage

... even provide benefit to the host bacterium while they are dormant, by adding new functions to the bacterial genome , a phenomenon called lysogenic conversion . A famous example is the harmless Vibrio bacteria strain, which is turned into Vibrio cholerae by a phage, causing cholera . Phages play ...

Prion

... and replication remains mysterious. One idea (the "Protein X" hypothesis) is that an as-yet unidentified cellular enzyme (Protein X) catalyzes the conversion of PrP C to PrP SC by bringing a molecule of each of the two together into a complex. An alternative idea is that prion propagation does not ...

Proteolysis

... Separation of viral proteins that were translated from a monocistronic mRNA Digestion of proteins from foods as a source of amino acids conversion of predecessor-proteins (proenzymes , zymogens , prehormones ) into their final structures. Examples of proteases are trypsin and ...
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