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Conditions in Biological Definition

Chromatography

... of concentration, and can change if experimental conditions are changed, for example temperature is increased ... the more hydrophobic components will elute under conditions of relatively high methanol, whereas the more hydrophilic will elute under conditions of relatively low methanol. Whether one starts ...

Diabetes mellitus

... and South Asian ancestry). Many medical conditions are associated with a higher risk of various ... (high glucose) can also have a hypo under certain conditions i.e. not eating regularly, or strenuous exercise, ... Lancet 1998;352:837-53. PMID 9742976 . conditions in Occupational Therapy: effect on occupational ...

Evolution

... is either extremely rare or only happens under conditions very unlike those of modern Earth. The 1953 Miller-Urey experiment suggests that conditions on the ancient earth may have permitted ... abiogenesis is rare or impossible under modern conditions and the evolutionary process is exceedingly slow, ...

Natural selection

... The basic concept of natural selection is that conditions (or "nature") determine (or "select") how well ... or be less prolific. As long as environmental conditions remain the same, or similar enough that these ... being in relation to its organic and inorganic conditions of life. We see nothing of these slow changes in ...

Origin of life

... investigated. A few facts give insight into the conditions in which life may have emerged, but the ... postulated emergence: Plausible pre-biotic conditions result in the creation of the basic small ... Stanley Miller ) are performed under simulated conditions resembling those thought at the time to have ...

Stem cell

... have been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukemia and lymphoma . During ... step by step, where each step has different conditions and a strict window of time." Transforming ... 2. Create an environment to mimic the conditions found in bone marrow by using stromal cells, ...

X chromosome

... 2.1 Numerical abnormalities 2.2 Other conditions 3 References Function The sex ... or 49,XXXXX) have been identified, but these conditions are rare. The extra genetic material may lead to ... syndrome mosaics (45,X/46,XX). Chromosomal conditions involving the sex chromosomes often affect sex ...

Y chromosome

... 1 Function 2 Chromosomal conditions related to chromosome Y 3 Repair of the Y ... determination and development. Chromosomal conditions related to chromosome Y The following conditions are caused by changes in the structure or number ...

Apoptosis

... of cervical cancer . Response to stress or DNA damage Stress conditions (such as starvation) as well as damage to the cell's DNA resulting from ... caspase activators. Just how BAX and BAK are controlled under the normal conditions of cells that are not undergoing apoptosis, is incompletely understood. ...

DNA

... 6.4 Different helix geometries 6.4.1 Supercoiled DNA 6.4.2 conditions for formation of A and Z helices 6.4.3 Table of comparison of the ... the unwinding of the double-helix required for RNA transcription . conditions for formation of A and Z helices The two other known double-helical ...

Ethyl alcohol

... Database Unless otherwise stated, all data was produced under conditions of standard temperature and pressure . Disclaimer and references ... yeast in the absence of oxygen . The process of culturing yeast under conditions to produce alcohol is referred to as brewing . Yeasts can grow in the ...

Hydrolysis

... of each product. Irreversibility of hydrolysis under physiological conditions Under physiological conditions (i.e. in dilute aqueous solution), a hydrolytic cleavage reaction, where ...

Insulin

... and syndromes caused by an insulin disturbance There are several conditions in which insulin disturbance is pathologic: diabetes mellitus ... fit exercise undertaken adjusting dosage, type, and timing to fit other conditions as for instance the increased stress of illness the dosage is ...

Lichen

... high mountain elevations and at high latitudes. Some survive in the tough conditions of deserts, and others on frozen soil of the arctic regions. Some lichens ... compete well against even similarly low-growing mosses or liverworts where conditions of adequate moisture will favor the latter. Lichens are a part ...

Life

... as a highly organized auto-cannibalizing system naturally emerging from conditions common on planetary bodies, and consisting of a population of replicators ... listed in a rough order of postulated emergence: Plausible pre-biotic conditions result in the creation of the basic small molecules of life. This was ...

Marfan syndrome

... affects all races and both sexes equally. Symptoms The most serious conditions associated with Marfan syndrome primarily involve the cardiovascular ... detachment of the retina and/or cornea . Treatment The heart conditions related to Marfan syndrome may not necessarily produce obvious symptoms. ...

Protein

... or native state , in a small range of pH values and under solution conditions with a minimum quantity of electrolytes , as many proteins will not ... many proteins were interconvertible, that by careful control of solution conditions (by for example, dialyzing away a denaturing chemical), a denatured ...

Thermoregulation

... J. O. Wakelin Barratt, it has been shown that under certain pathological conditions a warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal may become for a time cold-blooded ... animals is maintained with but slight variation. In health under normal conditions the temperature of man varies between 36 C and 38 C, or if the thermometer ...

Astrobiology

... data from telescopes and planetary space probes , comparing the conditions on other planets in the solar system with extreme environments on Earth ... geysers , among others. Several planets in the Solar System have similar conditions and could well harbour similar life forms. Such research is conducted at ...

Abiogenesis

... abiogenesis applied only to "known existing organisms", not to unknown forms of life or proto-life which may have existed under the vastly different conditions of the early Earth. The modern definition of abiogenesis is concerned with the formation of the simplest forms of life from primordial ....

Albinism

... age , when most "normally" sighted individuals begin to suffer long- or short-sightedness, due to changes in muscle tension. Individuals with these conditions may be helped by the use of glasses and low-visual aids such as magnifiers, as well as bright but angled reading lights, but their vision cannot be ...

Allele frequency

... allele that has a frequency of 20%. However, alleles distribute randomly only in the absence of selection and under other assumptions. When these conditions apply, a population is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium . The frequencies of all the alleles of a given gene often are graphed together ...

Amino acid

... glycine is not optically active . H His Histidine basic 155.16 7.60 1.80 9.33 6.04 In even slightly acidic conditions protonation of the nitrogen occurs, changing the properties of histidine and the polypeptide as a whole. It is used by many proteins as a ...

Antibiotic

... of the purified active ingredient which were quickly tested on clinical cases. Physicians were exhilarated at the rapid and reliable cure of conditions which had, until then, been difficult to treat, terrible to endure, and frequently fatal. Observation of other species of mold and other organisms ...

Archaea

... al., 2002; Srinivasan et al., ... BBC News July 21, 1999: Toughest bug reveals genetic secrets Citat: ... [ Pyrococcus abyssi ] likes conditions that the vast majority of other organisms would find impossible to live in. It thrives best at temperatures of about 103 degrees [Celsius] and under ...

Biology

... origin of life to the present time. Up into the 19th century it was commonly believed that life forms can appear spontaneously under certain conditions (see abiogenesis ). The universality of the genetic code is generally regarded by biologists as definitive evidence in favor of the theory of ...

Bioinformatics

... hypotheses about the genes involved in each state. In a single-cell organism, one might compare stages of the cell cycle , along with various stress conditions (heat shock, starvation, etc.). One can then apply clustering algorithms to that expression data to determine which genes are co-expressed. Further ...

Biotechnology

... is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes. An example would include an organism designed to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. Green biotechnology tends to produce more environmentally friendly solutions than ...

Blood

... . Damage to the internal organs can cause severe internal bleeding, or hemorrhage . Circulation blockage can also create many medical conditions from ischemia in the short term to tissue necrosis and gangrene in the long term. Hemophilia is a genetic illness that causes dysfunction ...

Full blood count

... in femtolitres . Anemia is classified as microcytic or macrocytic based on whether this value is above or below the expected normal range. Other conditions that can affect MCV include thalassemia and reticulocytosis . Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) - the average amount of hemoglobin per red blood ...

Brain

... hearing and (crude and experimental) artificial vision for deaf and blind people, and brain pacemakers are now common to regulate brain activity in conditions such as Parkinson's disease . Both of these avenues of research have potentially serious ethical implications. For example, using electrodes ...

C4 carbon fixation

... metabolic pathway found in land plants ( C4 plants ). They are competitively superior to plants possessing the more common C3 pathway under the conditions of drought, high temperatures and nitrogen limitation. The C 4 cycle allows for a spacial separation of carbon fixation from respiration, thus ...

Cancer

... , poor appetite and cachexia (wasting), excessive sweating ( night sweats ), anemia , and specific paraneoplastic phenomena , i.e. specific conditions that are due to an active cancer, such as thrombosis or hormonal changes. Every single item in the above list has a substantial differential ...

Cellular respiration

... as carbon dioxide and water . This makes for a total gain of 38 ATP molecules during cellular respiration under optimal conditions; however, such conditions are generally not realized due to such losses as the cost of moving pyruvate into mitochondria. This takes place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic ...

Cladistics

... unintended symplesiomorphies ( homeoplasies ), caused by convergent evolution (i.e. characters that resemble each other because of environmental conditions or function, and not because of common ancestry. A well-known example of convergent evolution is wings. Though the wings of birds and insects may ...

Collagen

... consist of globular units of the collagen sub-unit tropocollagen . Tropocollagen sub-units spontaneously arrange themselves under physiological conditions into staggered array structures stabilised by numerous hydrogen and covalent bonds. Tropocollagen sub-units are left-handed triple helices where ...

Competitive exclusion principle

... competitor in the long run. The competitive exclusion principle is a theoretical concept that follows from abstract mathematical modeling . The conditions under which competitive exclusion must hold are not very well understood; several natural ecosystems are known in which competitive exclusion seems ...

Bioinformatics

... hypotheses about the genes involved in each state. In a single-cell organism, one might compare stages of the cell cycle , along with various stress conditions (heat shock, starvation, etc.). One can then apply clustering algorithms to that expression data to determine which genes are co-expressed. Further ...

Culture

... between two cultures can lead to people "borrowing" (really, learning) from one another ( diffusion (anthropology) or transculturation ). Under conditions of violence or political inequality, however, people of one society can "steal" cultural artifacts from another, or impose cultural artifacts on ...

Cytoplasm

... cytoplasm's watery component is also known as hyaloplasm . The watery component can be more or less gel -like or liquid depending on the milieu's conditions and the activity phases of the cell. In the first case, it is named cytogel and is a viscid solid mass. In the second case, called cytosol , is a ...
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