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Concentration in Biological Definition

Active transport

... molecules move against either an electrical or concentration gradient (collectively termed an electrochemical ... the transport of the other solute from a low concentration region to a high one. An example is the ... of calcium and sets the normal or resting concentration of this important second messenger . But the ...

ATPase

... Na + /K + ATPase ), which establishes the ionic concentration balance that maintains the cell potential . ... the side of the membrane where they are in low concentration to the side where they are in high concentration. ... This enzyme works when a proton moves down the concentration gradient, giving the enzyme a spinning motion. ...

Ion gradient

... An ion gradient is a concentration gradient of ions , it can be called an ... I.E by letting the ions diffuse through the high concentration side to the low concentration side through transmembrane proteins which can use ...

Diffusion

... As in simple diffusion, net transport is down a concentration gradient, and no additional energy has to be ... Ions Diffusion of ions depends on the concentration gradient, and the membrane potential. The net ... more slowly through the balloon wall. There is a concentration gradient in the balloon wall because the balloon ...

Fick's law of diffusion

... used in steady state diffusion , i.e., when the concentration within the diffusion volume does not change with ... of [length 2 time -1 ] c is the concentration in dimensions of [parts length -3 ] x is ... in non-steady state diffusion, i.e., when the concentration within the diffusion volume changes with respect ...

Hydrolysis

... a hydrolytic cleavage reaction, where the concentration of a metabolic precursor is low (on the order of ... X + Y Assuming that x is the final concentration of products, and that C is the initial concentration of A, and W = [H 2 O] = 55.5 molar, then x can ...

Lipid

... right. The self-organisation depends on the concentration of the lipid present in solution. Below the critical micelle concentration the lipids form a single layer on the liquid ... in solution. At the first critical micelle concentration (CMC-I), the lipids organise in spherical ...

Lung

... of air, avian lungs are able to extract a greater concentration of oxygen from inhaled air. Birds are thus ... gas exchange and regulation of hydrogen ion concentration , the lungs also: influence on the concentration of biologically active substances and drugs used ...

Michaelis-Menten kinetics

... Menten . These kinetics are valid only when the concentration of substrate is higher than the concentration of enzyme, and in the particular case of steady-state, where the concentration of the complex enzyme-substrate is constant. To ...

Osmosis

... membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration. The ... in a solvent such as water. This raises the concentration of the solute in these areas. The solvent then diffuses to these areas of higher solute concentration to equalize ...

Osmoregulation

... (aquatic and terrestrial) must maintain the right concentration of solutes and amount of water in their body ... Hypertonic is a solution with higher solute concentration (higher osmotic pressure) than another thus water ... in. Hypotonic is a solution with lower solute concentration (lower osmotic pressure) than another thus water ...

Passive transport

... the net movement of material from an area of high concentration of that material to an area with lower concentration. The difference of concentration between the two areas is often termed as the concentration gradient , and diffusion will continue until this ...

Signal transduction

... of the signal relayed by the receptor is the concentration of the hormone-receptor complex, which is ... affinity of the hormone for the receptor, the concentration of the hormone and, of course, the concentration of the receptor. ...

Full blood count

... of hemoglobin per red blood cell, in picograms . Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) - the average concentration of hemoglobin in the cells. Red cell distribution width (RDW) - a ...

Competitive inhibitor

... there. Characteristic for this mode of inhibition is that increasing the concentration of substrate reduces the effect of the inhibitor, and vice-versa. In ... of the enzyme is completely blocked by the inhibitor and increasing the concentration of substrate does not restore enzyme activity. The kinetics of these ...

Chromatography

... gel. Analytical chromatography is used to determine the identity and concentration of molecules in a mixture. Preparative chromatography is used to purify ... immobilized metal ions, such as copper, nickel, zinc, or iron. Salt concentration is increased to produce later fractions. High performance liquid ...

Enzyme

... to determine the maximum speed of an enzymatic reaction, the substrate concentration is increased until a constant rate of product formation is achieved. This ... by the Michaelis-Menten constant ( K M ), which is the substrate concentration required for an enzyme to reach one half its maximum velocity. Each ...

Joint

... to slide against each other. Of all the layers, it has a the highest concentration of collagen and the lowest concentration of proteoglycans , making it very resistant to shear stresses. Deeper ...

Kidney

... function of the kidney The kidney regulates the pH, mineral ion concentration and water composition of the blood. By exchanging hydronium ions and ... a change in the water absorption of the kidney tubule. Tissue fluid concentration thus returns to a mean of 98%. Terms renal capsule : The ...

Lambda phage

... the affinity between cI and OR3, which will be occupied only when the cI concentration is high. In the absence of cI proteins, the cro gene may be ... presence of cI proteins, only the cI gene may be transcribed. At high concentration of cI, transcriptions of both genes are repressed. ...

Lineweaver-Burke diagram

... , v max is the maximum reaction velocity, and [ S ] is the substrate concentration . The Lineweaver-Burke plot is useful for rapidly identifying important ... the contribution of the least important data points (those when substrate concentration is minimal). Thus, the Lineweaver-Burke plot is considered inferior to ...

Mitochondrion

... use the released energy to pump protons (H + ) against a gradient (the concentration of protons in the intermembrane space is higher than that in the matrix). ... direction) from the matrix into the intermembrane space. As the proton concentration increases in the intermembrane space, a strong diffusion gradient is ...

Mitochondrion

... use the released energy to pump protons (H + ) against a gradient (the concentration of protons in the intermembrane space is higher than that in the matrix). ... direction) from the matrix into the intermembrane space. As the proton concentration increases in the intermembrane space, a strong diffusion gradient is ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... DNA ladder in agarose gel. DNA ladder (lane 1), the PCR product in low concentration (lane 2), and high concentration (lane 3). Image published with permission of Helmut W. Klein, Institute ...

Plasmolysis

... of water occurs across the membrane moving from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration outside the cell. It is unlikely to occur in nature, except in severe ...

Antibiotic

... by the type of infection in which they are useful, which depends on the sensitivities of the organisms that most commonly cause the infection and the concentration of antibiotic obtainable in the affected tissue. Side effects Side effects range from slight headache to a major allergic reaction. One of ...

Antibody

... (1 and 2) and gamma-globulins according to weight. Immunoglobulins are all in the gamma region. In some disease states ( myeloma ) a very high concentration of one particular immunoglobulin will show up as a monoclonal band. Isotypes According to differences in their heavy chain constant ...

Blood

... oxygen-carrying proteins are freely soluble in the blood; in vertebrates they are contained in specialized red blood cells , allowing for a higher concentration of respiratory pigments without increasing viscosity or damaging blood filtering organs like the kidneys. Insects In insects , the blood ...

C4 carbon fixation

... and nitrogen limitation. The C 4 cycle allows for a spacial separation of carbon fixation from respiration, thus allowing C 4 plants to increase concentration of CO 2 within their leaves. This increases the amount of photosynthesis and decreases the chances of photorespiration, a harmful process in which ...

Cytosol

... organisms) maintains the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and controls internal movement of structures, e.g., transport vesicles . As the concentration of soluble molecules increases within the cytosol, an osmotic gradient builds up toward the outside of the cell. Water flows into the cell, making ...

Ethyl alcohol

... yeast under conditions to produce alcohol is referred to as brewing . Yeasts can grow in the presence of up to only about 14% alcohol, but the concentration of alcohol in the final product can be increased by distillation . For a mixture of ethanol and water, there is a maximum boiling azeotrope at ...

Eugenics

... measurement of physical characteristics to the more ghastly experiments carried out by Josef Mengele for Otmar von Verschuer on twins in the concentration camps. During the 1930s and 1940s the Nazi regime forcibly sterilized hundreds of thousands of people who they viewed as mentally and ...

Facilitated diffusion

... more molecules to transport. In contrast to active transport , facilitated diffusion does not require energy and carries molecules or ions down a concentration gradient. ...

Fermentation

... probably the first to develop vegetable fermentation. Products Yeast produce ethanol and carbon dioxide gas. When the ferment has a high concentration of pectin minute quantities of methanol can be produced. Usually only one of the products is desired; in bread the alcohol is baked out, and in ...

Flagellum

... The engine is powered by proton motive force , i.e., by the flow of protons (i.e., hydrogen ions ) across the bacterial cell membrane due to a concentration gradient set up by the cell's metabolism (in Vibrio species the motor is a sodium ion pump, rather than a proton pump ). The rotor transports ...

Homeostasis

... as to reverse the direction of change. Since this tends to keep things constant, it allows the maintenance of homeostasis. For instance, when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the human body increases, the lungs are signalled to increase their activity and expel more carbon dioxide. In positive ...

Light-dependent reaction

... before returning to chlorophyll. This transport chain produces a proton-motive force, pumping H + ions across the membrane; this produces a concentration gradient which can be used to power ATP synthase . This pathway is known as cyclic photophosphorylation, and it produces neither O 2 nor NADPH. ...

Life

... the endergonic processes required to maintain the living state, such as the performance of mechanical work, the active transport of molecules against concentration gradients, and the biosynthesis of complex molecules." This definition, in use by most biochemists, makes it clear that fire is not alive, because ...

Macromolecule

... for assistance in dissolving into solution. Many require salts or particular ions to dissolve in water. Proteins will denature if the solute concentration of their solution is too high or too low. According to IUPAC recommendations the term macromolecule is reserved for an individual molecule and ...

Nephron

... of the collecting duct are also permeable to urea , allowing some of it to enter the medulla of the kidney , thus maintaining its high ion concentration (which is very important for the nephron). See also physiology urology nephrology ...
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