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Complex in Biological Definition

Animal

... cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex structures possible. In contrast, other ... very early on. As mentioned, they lack the complex organization found in most other phyla. The ... but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors. A number of parasites are included in ...

Apoptosis

... differentiation or apoptosis comprises a complex interplay between positive and negative ... role of PS receptor (PSR) in the development of complex organisms such as mammals. Intrinsic and ... in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), which contains the Fas-associated death ...

Brain

... neurons. The human brain is particularly complex and enlarged. Contents ... of animals, with some exceptions, have notably complex brains: the arthropods (for example, insects ... known as allocortex (Martin, 1996). More complex vertebrates like mammals have developed ...

Cell metabolism

... cell uses energy and reducing power to construct complex molecules and perform other life functions such a ... and catabolism , in which a cell breaks down complex molecules to yield energy and reducing power. Cell metabolism involves extremely complex sequences of controlled chemical reactions called ...

Cold-blooded

... can shiver. Poikilotherms often have more complex metabolisms than homeotherms. For an important ... a result, poikilotherms often have larger, more complex genomes than homeotherms in the same ... such as brains or wings. Some of the most complex adaptations known involve poikilotherms with such ...

Gel electrophoresis

... DNA or RNA tend to fold up into molecules with complex shapes and migrate through the gel in a ... on the other hand, can have different charges and complex shapes, therefore they may not migrate into the ... act like they were long rods instead of having a complex tertiary shape, the rate at which the resulting ...

Electron transfer chain

... the mitochondrial electron transfer chain . complex I - NADH dehydrogenase , also called NADH coenzyme Q reductase. complex II - Succinate - coenzyme Q reductase . complex III - Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase . ...

Eukaryote

... Protista Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells , in which the genetic material is ... such as bacteria lack nuclei and other complex cell structures, and are called prokaryotes . ... fish, invertebrates, mushrooms, plants, and complex single-celled organisms. Eukaryotes are ...

Gel electrophoresis

... DNA or RNA tend to fold up into molecules with complex shapes and migrate through the gel in a ... on the other hand, can have different charges and complex shapes, therefore they may not migrate into the ... act like they were long rods instead of having a complex tertiary shape, the rate at which the resulting ...

Glycome

... . The glycome may in fact be one of the most complex entities in nature. The glycome is studied by ... as glycomics . The genome is one of the most complex structures in an organism (although not necessarily as complex as, for example, the brains of higher ...

Human

... their use of language ; their organization into complex social structures composed of many cooperating ... and ritual practices; and their development of complex technology . These behavioral differences have ... and what their role is in the evolution of complex social organization and culture, are matters of ...

Immune system

... called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These proteins have configurations and ... system The complement system is a very complex group of serum proteins which is activated in a ... formation and activation of the membrane attack complex , and inflammation. Adaptive immune system ...

Intermembrane space

... structures responsible for this are coenzyme q , complex I , complex II , and complex III . ...

Light-dependent reaction

... flow, the electron originates in a pigment complex called photosystem I, passes from the primary acceptor to ferredoxin , then to a complex of two cytochromes (similar to those found in ... driving ATP synthase. Since the photosystem II complex replaced its lost electrons from an external ...

Meiosis

... condense, the axial element of the synaptonemal complex (a protein lattice that keeps homologous ... is formed. Zygotene : The synaptonemal complex is formed (central and lateral elements) pairing ... Pachytene : starts right after the synaptonemal complex is fully formed (when synapsis ends), crossing ...

Animal

... cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex structures possible. In contrast, other ... very early on. As mentioned, they lack the complex organization found in most other phyla. The ... but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors. A number of parasites are included in ...

Michaelis-Menten kinetics

... of steady-state, where the concentration of the complex enzyme-substrate is constant. To determine the ... (ES) complex. Low values indicate that the ES complex is held together very tightly and rarely ... to measure the amount of the enzyme substrate complex during the reaction, so the reaction must be ...

Origin of life

... abiogenesis, which postulated the formation of complex organisms. This article reviews different ... On the other hand, spontaneous formation of complex polymers from abiotically generated monomers ... found anywhere on earth." Other sources of complex molecules have been postulated, including sources ...

Light-dependent reaction

... flow, the electron originates in a pigment complex called photosystem I, passes from the primary acceptor to ferredoxin , then to a complex of two cytochromes (similar to those found in ... driving ATP synthase. Since the photosystem II complex replaced its lost electrons from an external ...

Signal transduction

... kind of extracellular signal is nutrient . In complex organism this includes the ligands responsible ... by extracellular signalling and takes place in complex organisms that are composed of many cells. Within ... in turn, or come together to form a multi-protein complex that finally sends a signal via a soluble ...

T cell

... get presented with self and foreign antigens in a complex with type I and type II MHC molecules by type II ... which they are specific and that are binded in a complex with the MHC molecule of the type they were ... they get are presented with self-antigens in a complex with MHC molecules on the surface of type V and ...

Anaphase

... the spindle poles to the centromeres . The point of contact is a protein complex called the kinetochore, and these fibres are sometimes referred to as ... metaphase-to-anaphase transition. At this point the Anaphase Promoting complex (APC) becomes activated. This terminates metaphase (M-phase) activity ...

Artificial life

... its results were so powerful in explaining the simple rules that underlay complex effects in nature. Toffoli later provided a key proof that CAs were ... a key figure in tying artificial life research to the emerging field of complex adaptive systems , working at the Center for Nonlinear Studies (a basic ...

Biology

... , aggressive ; parasitic or symbiotic . Matters become more complex still when two or more different species interact in an ecosystem , and ... A food web , a generalization of the food chain, depicting the complex interrelationships among organisms in an ecosystem Main articles: ...

Bacterium

... , because bacteria are prokaryotes, in contrast to organisms with more complex cells, called eukaryotes . The term "bacteria" has variously applied to ... (random genetic change within a cell's own genetic code). Similar to more complex organisms, bacteria also have mechanisms for exchanging genetic material. ...

Carbohydrate

... or consuming energy , other forms being fat and protein . Relatively complex carbohydrates are known as polysaccharides . Carbohydrates are naturally ... . Nutrition Refined grain products are rich sources of complex carbohydrates Strictly speaking, carbohydrates are not necessary for ...

Cell growth

... of entire cells, usually called cytokinesis . Cell reproduction is more complex in eukaryotes than in other organisms. Non-eukaryotic cells such as ... Eukaryotic cell reproduction either involves mitosis or a more complex process called meiosis . Mitosis and meiosis are sometimes called the two ...

Chromatin

... Chromatin is the substance of a chromosome and consists of a complex of DNA and protein in eukaryotic cells . It can be made visible by ... Heterochromatin Chromatin is the extended form of DNA-protein complex present in the nucleus during interphase in eukaryotic cells. It can be ...

Chromatography

... stationary liquid or solid phase. Various techniques for the separation of complex mixtures rely on the differential affinities of substances for a gas or ... and rotating the paper 90 o inbetween. This is useful for separating complex mixtures of similar compounds. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) ...

Culture

... "culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any ... reject the notion of subculture . Instead, they see culture as a complex web of shifting patterns that link people in different locales, and link ...

Digital organism

... the core world. However, Rasmussen did not observe the evolution of complex and stable programs. It turned out that the programming language in ... first time computer programs that did indeed evolve in a meaningful and complex way. Later, Chris Adami , Titus Brown , and Charles Ofria started ...

DNA

... DNA is not separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope . In the complex cells that make up plants , animals and in other multi-celled ... perhaps even uniform. Organisms, on the other hand, are fantastically complex individually and widely diverse collectively. Geneticists did not speak of ...

Enzyme

... (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein , or protein complex , that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D ... and biologically active amines NADH dehydrogenase : the first complex in the electron transfer chain , transferring electrons from NADH to ...

Bacterium

... , because bacteria are prokaryotes, in contrast to organisms with more complex cells, called eukaryotes . The term "bacteria" has variously applied to ... (random genetic change within a cell's own genetic code). Similar to more complex organisms, bacteria also have mechanisms for exchanging genetic material. ...

Eye

... do nothing but detect whether the surroundings are light or dark. More complex eyes are used to provide the sense of vision . Contents ... development, while mollusk eyes grow inward from skin cells. How a complex structure like the eye could have evolved is often said to be a difficult ...

Golgi apparatus

... In cell biology , the Golgi apparatus , Golgi body , Golgi complex , or dictyosome is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, ... The structure and internal function of the Golgi apparatus is quite complex and is the subject of scientific dispute. The Golgi apparatus consists, ...

Hermaphrodite

... The seabasses (Family Serranidae ). These are a highly sought food fish complex made up of primarily groupers. Since even a small male can produce more ... are bisexual and perfect . Hermaphrodism in plants is more complex than in animals because plants can have hermaphroditic flowers as ...

Photosynthesis

... chemical energy. However, both processes actually take place through a complex sequence of steps, and are very different in detail. Fallen ... kelp to microscopic , single-celled organisms. Although they are not as complex as land plants, photosynthesis takes place in the same way. Light is ...

Leaf

... with pores called stomata (sing., stoma ), part of a stoma complex consisting of a pore surrounded on each side by chloroplast-containing ... , and two to four subsidiary cells that lack chloroplasts. The stoma complex regulates the exchange of gases and water vapor between the outside air ...

List of gene families

... regulatory proteins Homeobox ( Hox gene family) Achaete-scute complex ( Neuroblast formation) Genes-encoding immune system proteins Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Related protein families Motor proteins ...
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