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Complementary in Biological Definition

Sticky end/blunt end

... . DNA exhibits a stabilizing interaction between complementary base pairs , providing specificity to the pairing of two strands of DNA. If two complementary strands of DNA are of equal length, then they ... -5' However, if one strand extends beyond the complementary region, then the DNA is said to possess an ...

Cancer

... Radiation therapy 4.4 Clinical trials 4.5 complementary and alternative medicine 5 Causes and ... it may be among the first to benefit. complementary and alternative medicine complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of ...

DNA

... that DNA is helical 9.3.2 Discovery that complementary nucleotides occur in equal proportions 9.3.3 ... we do not (yet) know ; DNA is organized as two complementary strands, head-to-toe, with bonds between them ... "mate" properly only with a "T" on the other, complementary strand; The order does matter: A+T is not the ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... binding to a single DNA strand and creating the complementary strand. In Mullis's original PCR process, the ... double-stranded, and therefore, it is measured in complementary DNA building blocks (nucleic acids) called base ... is extremely case sensitive - it must not be complementary to any region of the other primer used in the ...

Restriction enzyme

... be spliced together, provided their ends are complementary (more below). Many of the procedures of ... it. Base-pairing between overhangs with complementary sequences enables two fragments to join or "to be ... reads the same in the opposite direction on the complementary strand. The meaning of "palindromic" in this ...

RNA

... in DNA, but uracil replaces thymine as the base complementary to adenine. This may be because uracil is ... into more complex structures by making use of complementary internal sequences; that is, one part of a single ... the enzyme. RNA is then synthesised so that it is complementary to one of strands in the DNA . The strand from ...

Anticodon

... an important role in various DNA cycles, including RNA translation . It is, specifically, the group of nucleotides on a strand of tRNA that is complementary to specific codons on a strand of mRNA . See also protein synthesis . The first base on the anticodon can be modified to another nucleotide ...

Bacterial conjugation

... single-stranded DNA of the nicked strand is inserted into the recipiane bacterium (5'-end first). The now single-stranded plasmid is filled up with a complementary strand by a rolling cycle mechanism. If the F-plasmid is integrated, the transferred DNA consists of the F-plasmid sequence plus an amount of ...

Chromosome walking

... The basic technique is as follows: A primer that matches the beginning of the DNA to sequence is used to synthesize a short DNA strand complementary to the unknown sequence, starting with the primer (see PCR ). The new short DNA strand is sequenced using the chain termination method . The ...

Culture

... resistant to it. Resistance can come from habit, religion and the integration and interdependence of culture traits. For example, men and women have complementary roles in many cultures. One sex might desire changes that affect the other, as happened in the second half of the 20th century in western cultures. ...

Endosymbiont

... lost many genes that are commonly found in other bacteria. Presumably these genes are not needed in the environment of the host insect cell. (A complementary theory as to why the bacteria may have lost genes, Muller's ratchet , is that since the endosymbionts are maternally transmitted and have no ...

Endosymbiont

... lost many genes that are commonly found in other bacteria. Presumably these genes are not needed in the environment of the host insect cell. (A complementary theory as to why the bacteria may have lost genes, Muller's ratchet , is that since the endosymbionts are maternally transmitted and have no ...

Enzyme

... to form one product. Enzymes are usually specific as to the reactions they catalyze and the substrates that are involved in these reactions. complementary structural properties of the enzyme and substrate are responsible for this specificity (Fig. 2). Kinetics In 1913, Leonor Michaelis and ...

Genetic recombination

... allow for crossover to occur. A recombinase creates a nick in one strand of a DNA double helix, allowing the nicked strand to pull apart from its complementary strand and anneal to one strand of the double helix on the opposite chromatid. A second nick allows the unannealed strand in the second double ...

Hybridisation

... is the process of mixing different species or varieties of organisms. In molecular biology hybridisation is the process of joining two complementary strands of DNA. In chemistry , hybridization is the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals suitable for bonding. ...

Neuroscience

... its own. Some researchers believe that cognitive neuroscience provides a bottom-up approach to understanding the mind and consciousness that is complementary to, or may replace, the top-down approach of psychology . The concern of neuroscience includes such diverse topics as the operation of ...

Purine

... tautomers . Two of the bases in nucleic acids , adenine and guanine , are purines. In DNA , these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary pyrimidines thymine and cytosine . purine pyrimidine A T G C In RNA , the complement of A is uracil instead of ...

Pyrimidine

... acids , namely cytosine , thymine , and uracil , are pyrimidine derivatives. In DNA and RNA , these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary purines . purine pyrimidine A T G C In RNA , the complement of A is U instead of T: purine pyrimidine A ...

Virus

... of the original RNA. A second group of RNA-containing viruses, called the retroviruses , uses the enzyme reverse transcriptase to synthesize a complementary strand of DNA so that the virus's genetic information is contained in a molecule of DNA rather than RNA. The viral DNA can then be further replicated ...
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