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Circular in Biological Definition

DNA

... 6.1 Strands association and dissociation 6.2 circular DNA 6.3 Great length versus tiny breadth ... makes long segments difficult to separate. circular DNA When the ends of a piece of double-helical ... as topoisomerases . Some of these enzymes unknot circular DNA by cleaving two strands so that another ...

Prokaryote

... much smaller than eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes have a single haploid circular (only exceptionally linear, as in Borrelia burgdorferi ) chromosome , ... , rather than in a membrane-bound nucleus, but may also have various small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids spread throughout the cell. Reproduction ...

Bacterial conjugation

... The transfer of DNA always runs from the F-positive towards the F-negative bacterium. If the F-plasmid is free, a nick is produced in one of the circular DNA strands of the plasmid. Then, the single-stranded DNA of the nicked strand is inserted into the recipiane bacterium (5'-end first). The now ...

Chloroplast

... membrane layers. The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma , corresponding to the cytoplasm of the bacterium, and contains tiny circular DNA and ribosomes , though most of their proteins are synthesized by the cell nucleus. Within the stroma are stacks of thylakoids , the ...

Chromosome

... telomeres . DNA replication begins at many different locations on the chromosome. Chromosomes in bacteria Bacterial chromosomes are often circular but sometimes linear. Some bacteria have one chromosome, while others have a few. Bacterial DNA also exists as plasmids . The distinction between ...

Computed axial tomography

... multiple different perspectives on attached CT workstation monitors. In conventional CT machines, an X-Ray tube is physically rotated behind a circular shroud (see the image above right); in the less used electron beam tomography (EBT) the tube is far larger, note the internal funnel shape in the ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... and chloroplasts contain DNA , which is fairly different from that of the cell nucleus, and that is similar to that of bacteria (in being circular and in its size). Mitochondria utilize a different genetic code than the eukaryotic host cell; this code is very similar to bacteria and ...

Ion channel

... ion channel is an integral membrane protein or more typically an assembly of several proteins. Such "multi- subunit " assemblies usually involve a circular arrangement of identical or related proteins closely packed around a water-filled pore through the plane of the membrane or lipid bilayer . While ...

Lambda phage

... called att λ . The sequence of the att site is called att B and consists of the parts B-O-B', whereas the complementary sequence in the circular phage genome is called att P and consists of the parts P-O-P'. The integration itself is a sequential exchange (see genetic recombination ) via a ...

Limbic system

... : hippocampus : involved in the formation of long-term memory amygdala : involved in aggression and fear cingulate gyrus (the circular shape of the cingulate gyrus resembles that of a "limb", hence the name) fornicate gyrus archicortex hypothalamus : controls the ...

Microbiology

... has allowed them to be used in industry and as experimental tools in different branches of biology: Bacteria and simple eukaryotes contain small circular DNAs , called plasmids . Plasmids can be genetically modified in vitro then inserted into bacteria that are grown in a culture to produce large ...

Mitochondrion

... theory Mitochondria are unusual among organelles in that they contain ribosomes and their own genetic material. Mitochondrial DNA is circular and employs characteristic variants of the standard eukaryotic genetic code . These and similar pieces of evidence motivate the endosymbiotic ...

Mitochondrion

... theory Mitochondria are unusual among organelles in that they contain ribosomes and their own genetic material. Mitochondrial DNA is circular and employs characteristic variants of the standard eukaryotic genetic code . These and similar pieces of evidence motivate the endosymbiotic ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... the gene, which can then be inserted into a vector (a vector is a piece of DNA which 'carries' the gene into the GEO) such as a plasmid (a circular DNA molecule) (Fig. 5). The DNA can then be transferred into an organism (the GMO) where the gene and its product can be studied more closely. ...

Plasmid

... Figure 1 : Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. (1) Chromosomal DNA . (2) Plasmids Plasmids are (typically) circular double-stranded DNA molecules that are separate from the chromosomal DNA (Fig. 1). They usually occur in bacteria , sometimes in eukaryotic ...

Secondary structure

... includes alpha helices , beta sheets , turns , and random coil , among other less common structure. Such structures often can be detected by circular dichroism spectroscopy . Nucleic acids also have secondary structure, most notably single-stranded RNA molecules. At a higher level, ...

Structural biology

... measurements on vast numbers of identical molecules at the same time. These methods include crystallography , NMR , Electron Microscopy and circular dichroism . Most often researchers use them to study the static " native states " of macromolecules. But variations on these methods are also used to ...

Virus classification

... satellite RNAs Single-stranded satellite RNAs Subgroup 1: Large satellite RNAs Subgroup 2: Small linear satellite RNAs Subgroup 3: circular satellite RNAs Prions Fungal prions Mamalian prions Other resources External links ICTV Index of Viruses ...
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