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Chemistry in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... by the suffix -ol , as in isopropanol . In chemistry , alcohol is a more general term, applied to ... and chemical properties 7 Toxicity 8 chemistry of alcohols 8.1 Preparation 8.1.1 ... and thus its acting as a substrate . chemistry of alcohols Preparation Laboratory ...

Biochemistry

... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life . Biochemists study the molecules and ... biochemistry has focused more specifically on the chemistry of enzyme -mediated reactions, and on the ... Biochemistry is principally concerned with the chemistry of substances that can be classified into a few ...

Chromatography

... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures . It ... Laurence Millington Synge were awarded the chemistry Nobel Prize "for their invention of partition ... is a standard laboratory method in organic chemistry . Because of its simplicity and speed TLC is ...

Free energy

... energy in different ways. For instance, in chemistry one is usually concerned with fluid systems at ... we disentangle below. The usage in physics and chemistry is as follows: In physics , free energy ... German word Arbeit , meaning work . In chemistry , free energy denotes the thermodynamic ...

Redox

... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes . The term redox process ... electrons to the substance. Reductants in chemistry are very diverse. Metal reduction - ... quo), but it does often lead to equilibrium. chemistry students sometimes remember the nature of ...

Redox

... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes . The term redox process ... electrons to the substance. Reductants in chemistry are very diverse. Metal reduction - ... quo), but it does often lead to equilibrium. chemistry students sometimes remember the nature of ...

Biophysics

... groups across departments within the fields of biology , biochemistry , chemistry , computer science , mathematics , medicine , pharmacology , ... acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and complexes thereof. Biochemistry and chemistry - biomolecular structure, siRNA, nucleic acid structure, ...

Gene

... gene nomenclature 1.4 Typical numbers of genes in an organism 2 chemistry and function of genes 2.1 Chemical structure of a gene 2.2 ... 1,000–23,000 Viroid 0–1 ~500 chemistry and function of genes Chemical structure of a gene Four kinds of ...

Genetic recombination

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Crossing over 1.1 chemistry of crossover 1.2 Consequences of crossover 1.3 Problems of crossover ... of the four chromatids carries a unique set of genetic information. chemistry of crossover Enzymes known as recombinases catalyze the reactions that ...

Louis Pasteur

... in Paris in 1843 and got a doctoral degree in 1846. He studied chemistry , but showed little promise at first (one of his professors described him ... doctoral thesis on crystallography got him a position of professor of chemistry at the Facult (College) of Strasbourg . In 1854, he was named Dean of ...

Mitochondrion

... diffusion . Peter Mitchell was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on chemiosmosis. Later, part of the 1997 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker for their clarification ...

Mitochondrion

... diffusion . Peter Mitchell was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on chemiosmosis. Later, part of the 1997 Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker for their clarification ...

Origin of life

... world theory and models introduced by Christian de Duve based on the chemistry of thioesters . More abstract and theoretical arguments for the ... by Christian de Duve Possible Connections Between Interstellar chemistry and the Origin of Life on the Earth Scientists Find Clues That Life ...

X-ray crystallography

... be inferred by quantitative study of this pattern. It is widely used in chemistry and biochemistry to determine the structures of an immense variety of ... and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, which led to a Nobel Prize in chemistry . The X-ray diffraction analysis of myoglobin was originally motivated by ...

Activation energy

... The activation energy in chemistry is the energy needed by a system to initiate a particular process. Activation energy is often used to denote the minimum energy needed for a ...

Amino acid

... In chemistry , an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups . In biochemistry , this shorter and more ...

Archaea

... noted above, many genetic trees group the two together. Some place eukaryotes closer to Eurarchaeota than Crenarchaeota are, although the membrane chemistry suggests otherwise. However, the discovery of archaean-like genes in certain bacteria , such as Thermotoga , makes their relationship difficult to ...

Artificial life

... Danny Hillis Karl Sims Thomas Ray Steve Grand , creator of Creatures See also artificial consciousness artificial chemistry digital organisms evolutionary art clanking replicator carbon chauvinism robotics systems biology wet alife ...

ATP synthase

... change in the F 1 particle, eventually leading to the synthesis of ATP. For elucidating this Boyer and Walker shared in the 1997 Nobel Prize in chemistry . Physiological role The F 1 F O ATP synthase is a reversible enzyme. Large enough quantities of ATP cause it to create a transmembrane ...

Biology

... and history Biologist - Notable biologists - History of biology - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Timeline of biology and organic chemistry - List of geneticists and biochemists Institutions, publications NASA Ames Research Center - Bachelor of Science - Publications ...

Biomechanics

... were largely composed of a protein other than collagen , many of its mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus , would be different. chemistry , molecular biology , and cell biology have much to offer in the way of explaining the active and passive properties of living tissues. For example, ...

Cellulose

... derived from beechwood cellulose. Cellulose is also used within the laboratory as a solid-state substrate for thin layer chromotography . chemistry Cellulose monomers (beta-glucose) are linked together through 1,4 glycosidic bonds . Cellulose is a straight chain (no coiling occurs). In ...

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

... be ignored. Eventually the weight of evidence began to favor the chemiosmotic hypothesis, and in 1978, Peter Mitchell was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry . see also: mitochondrion , chloroplasts , chemiosmotic potential , electron transfer chain , cytochrome References: ...

Genetic code

... cited in the text of the article. Knight, R.D. and Landweber, L.F. (1998). Rhyme or reason: RNA-arginine interactions and the genetic code. chemistry & Biology 5 (9), R215-R220. PDF version of manuscript Note 2 : Brooks, Dawn J.; Fresco, Jacques R.; Lesk, Arthur M.; and Singh, ...

Electrophysiology

... without washing out the intracellular medium. Disadvantages: Impossible to record from single channels. 4. Axon recording. Advantages: chemistry of cell is unchanged, axon pulses are discriminated from the less frequent retrograde cell action potentials. Disadvantages: Experimental protocol ...

Genetic code

... cited in the text of the article. Knight, R.D. and Landweber, L.F. (1998). Rhyme or reason: RNA-arginine interactions and the genetic code. chemistry & Biology 5 (9), R215-R220. PDF version of manuscript Note 2 : Brooks, Dawn J.; Fresco, Jacques R.; Lesk, Arthur M.; and Singh, ...

Glucose

... from the breakdown of carbohydrates, go straight to the liver , where they are converted into glucose. External links More on the chemistry and function of glucose in biology at EvoWiki ...

Hybridisation

... species or varieties of organisms. In molecular biology hybridisation is the process of joining two complementary strands of DNA. In chemistry , hybridization is the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals suitable for bonding. ...

Insulin

... biologist Frederick Sanger . It was the first protein the structure of which was completely determined. For this he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1958. In 1967, after decades of work, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the spatial conformation of the molecule, by means of X-ray ...

Ion channel

... helices. The determination of their molecular structure by Roderick MacKinnon using X-ray crystallography won a share of the 2003 Nobel Prize in chemistry . Because of their small size and the difficulty of crystallizing integral membrane proteins for X-ray analysis, it is only very recently that ...

Kary Mullis

... (PCR), a central technique in molecular biology which allows the amplification of specified DNA sequences. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry and the Japan Prize for this work in 1993 . Mullis was born in North Carolina, and grew up in Columbia, South Carolina. He attended the ...

Life

... least one cell . Living organisms maintain homeostasis . Species of living organisms will evolve . All life on Earth is based on the chemistry of carbon compounds. Some assert that this must be the case for all possible forms of life throughout the universe; others describe this position ...

Macromolecule

... simply by suctioning the solution through an ordinary straw. This is not true of smaller molecules. The 1964 edition of Linus Pauling 's College chemistry asserted that DNA in nature is never longer than about 5000 base pairs . This is because biochemists were inadvertently and with perfect ...

Nucleon

... Nucleon is the common name used in nuclear chemistry to refer to a neutron or a proton , the components of an atom 's nucleus . The total number of nucleons in an atom is the mass number on the ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... 5 External links History The basic method for performing PCR was invented by Kary Mullis , who was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in October 1993 for this achievement, only seven years after he first published his ideas. Mullis's idea was to develop a process by which DNA ...

Phenotype

... does not always enable prediction of the phenotype. Nevertheless, because phenotypes are much easier to observe than genotypes (it doesn't take chemistry or sequencing to determine a person's eye color), classical genetics uses phenotypes to deduce the functions of genes. Breeding experiments can ...

Lipid bilayer

... Color scheme: PO4 = green, N(CH3)3 = violet, water = blue, terminal CH3 = yellow, O = red, glycol C = brown, chain C = grey In biology and chemistry , a lipid bilayer is a membrane or zone of a membrane composed only of lipid molecules. The lipid bilayer is the foundation of all biological ...

Protein

... its structure solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, which led to them receiving a Nobel Prize in chemistry . A protein (in Greek πρωτεϊνη = first element ) is a complex, high molecular weight organic ...

Recombination

... possible implication of the term are as follows: In biology , the process of Genetic recombination and meiosis , as summarized above. In chemistry and electrical engineering , it is the state in which the hydrogen and oxygen gases form within the battery cell during charging are ...

Reduction

... instance of another. In cooking , reduction is the process of thickening a liquid mixture such as a sauce by evaporation . In chemistry , reduction is the reverse of oxidation, i.e. the formal oxidation state of an atom (independent or within a molecule ) is reduced by the ...
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