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Chemical in Biological Definition

Activation energy

... denote the minimum energy needed for a specific chemical reaction to occur. For a reaction to occur ... proceeds. The study of reaction rates is termed chemical kinetics . The transition state in a ... reactants to react. See also Energy -- chemical reaction ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells . ATP also plays an ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 chemical properties 2 Synthesis 3 ATP in the ... 5 See also 6 External link chemical properties Chemically, ATP consists of ...

Alcohol

... names 5.2 Etymology 6 Physical and chemical properties 7 Toxicity 8 Chemistry of ... "wood alcohol". It is now a cheap commodity chemical produced by the high pressure reaction of carbon ... and overlapping ways. Physical and chemical properties The hydroxyl group generally ...

Amino acid

... standard amino acids 4.1 Structures 4.2 chemical properties 5 Uses of substances derived ... by the body from other compounds through chemical reactions , but instead must be taken in with ... represented in the genetic code . chemical properties Following is a table listing the one ...

ATPase

... enzyme (in most cases) harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur. This ... hydrolysis and transport is more or less a strict chemical reaction, in which a fixed number of solute ... exchanger. Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform ...

Chromatography

... "retention time." A chromatograph takes a chemical mixture carried by liquid or gas and ... In paper chromatography, chemical interactions with the paper make compounds travel ... and speed TLC is often used for monitoring chemical reactions and for the qualitative analysis of ...

Diabetes mellitus

... tissue is a (recently identified) source of chemical signals (hormones and cytokines ). Other ... the drop of blood is placed on top of a strip. A chemical reaction occurs and the strip changes color. The ... suggested diabetics were deficient in a single chemical that was normally produced by the pancreas - he ...

Diffusion

... result of turbulent fluid motion rather than chemical reactions or the application of external force ... Polarity 2.1.5 Ions 2.2 Diffusion in chemical engineering 2.3 Atomic diffusion 2.4 ... or closing ion channels. Diffusion in chemical engineering Diffusion is the movement of ...

DNA

... 7 Direction of DNA strands 7.1 chemical nomenclature (5' and 3') 7.2 Sense and ... strand down the middle via relatively trivial chemical reactions, and recreating the "other half" of ... a mutation occurs; Mutations are simply chemical imperfections in this process: a base is ...

Warm-blooded

... and you will now have all your internal chemical reactions functioning at their best. This means ... cold blooded is that you need to have multiple chemical pathways available to you, some of them for ... as their surroundings. The skunk cabbage uses chemical means to warm itself at the end of winter. The ...

Enzyme

... , or protein complex , that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of ... to control molecular shapes and because many chemical reactions would occur too slowly to sustain life ... drive other, otherwise energetically unfavorable, chemical reactions. This is analogous to raising a heavy ...

Ethyl alcohol

... Name Ethanol chemical formula C 2 H 5 OH Molecular weight ... NIST WebBook MSDS Hazardous chemical Database Unless otherwise stated, all ... or grain alcohol , is a flammable, colorless chemical compound , one of the alcohols that is most ...

Gene

... 2 Chemistry and function of genes 2.1 chemical structure of a gene 2.2 Expression of ... molecular biology , the DNA of a gene encodes the chemical structure of a protein . The genetic code ... ~500 Chemistry and function of genes chemical structure of a gene Four kinds of sequentially ...

Origin of life

... accumulated and provided a rich environment for chemical evolution ("soup theory"). On the other hand, ... Wchtershuser, 1998) Another unsolved issue in chemical evolution is the origin of homochirality , i.e. ... heated. Other possibilities include systems of chemical reactions taking place within clay substrates ...

Osmosis

... solvent, but not to the solute, resulting in a chemical potential difference across the membrane which ... is the same strength (that is, until the chemical potential is equal on both sides). Osmosis ... 1 Explanation 2 Example of osmosis 3 chemical potential 4 Osmotic pressure 5 Reverse ...

Redox

... atom. These two terms go together, because in a chemical reaction, one cannot occur without the other; ... from the substance. Oxidants are usually chemical substances in high oxidation numbers (eg. H 2 O ... of carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the ...

Potential energy

... energy 1.2 Elastic potential energy 1.3 chemical energy 1.4 Rest mass energy 1.5 Electrical ... Main Article: Elastic potential energy ) . chemical energy chemical energy is a form of potential energy related to ...

Purine

... Purine chemical name Purine chemical formula C 5 H 4 N 4 Molecular mass ... showed that the Purines were part of a single chemical family. See also Simple aromatic ...

Redox

... atom. These two terms go together, because in a chemical reaction, one cannot occur without the other; ... from the substance. Oxidants are usually chemical substances in high oxidation numbers (eg. H 2 O ... of carbon-carbon double or triple bonds. The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... of "normal" mental or emotional functioning by chemical means versus a more holistic approach (diet, ... designed to treat, or that they are based on a chemical imbalance of the brain, or that SSRIs effectively handle this chemical imbalance. Allen J. Frances, professor of ...

Synapse

... dendrites , converting electrical signals into chemical ones. Synapses are specialized junctions ... 1 Anatomy 2 Signalling across chemical synapses 3 Synaptic strength 4 ... an electrical synapse . Signalling across chemical synapses The release of neurotransmitter is ...

Abiogenesis

... philosopher Anaxagoras . Hoyle became a staunch critic of theories of chemical evolution to explain the naturalistic Origin of life . Francis ... time as the universe. Information theorist Hubert Yockey argued that chemical evolutionary research begs the question: Research on the origin of ...

Antibiotic

... species of mold and other organisms revealed a hitherto unknown level of chemical warfare being carried out against bacteria. New antibiotics were rapidly ... are many way to classify antibiotics. One such classification is by chemical structure: Aminoglycosides Amikacin Dibekacin ...

Artificial life

... possibility of generating a "living process" outside of a carbon-based chemical solution. Its researchers try instead to mimic life processes to ... examples that have evolved on earth. This includes biological and chemical experiments, computer simulations, and purely theoretical endeavors. ...

Biochemistry

... is the chemistry of life . Biochemists study the molecules and chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes that take place in all living ... in biochemistry (chemistry) List of geneticists & biochemists chemical ecology External links The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and ...

Biological membrane

... define enclosed spaces or compartments in which cells may maintain a chemical or biochemical environment that differs from the outside. For ... permeable structure. This means that the size, charge and other chemical properties of the atoms and molecules attempting to cross it will ...

Bone

... weight composite material , formed mostly of calcium phosphate (in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxyapatite), which has relatively high ... with each other via gap-junctions. They contain alkaline phosphatase - a chemical which has a role in the mineralisation of bone. Bone Lining Cells (BLCs) ...

Cell nucleus

... cell's genetic material. Nuclei have two primary functions: to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm and to store information needed for ... transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, while separating the chemical reactions taking place in cytoplasm from reactions happening within the ...

Cellular respiration

... respiration is, in its broadest definition, the process in which the chemical bonds of energy -rich molecules such as glucose are converted into ... in yogurt giving it its sour taste. Fermentation products contain chemical energy that cannot be further broken down by fermentation, making ...

Chlorophyll

... incoming light is absorbed by chlorophyll, ionizing it. The resulting chemical energy is then captured in the form of ATP , and ultimately to convert ... of the electromagnetic spectrum , thus its intense green color. chemical structure Chlorophyll is a chlorin pigment, which is structurally ...

Drug

... to enhance performance or ability, to alter states of mind or to modify a chemical process or processes in the body. The word "drug" is etymologically ... forum. Books about Illicit and Popular Drugs PiHKAL: A chemical Love Story (1988) ISBN 0963009605 TiHKAL: The Continuation (1991) ...

Equilibrium

... equilibrium may or may not be stable. Some specific examples are: chemical equilibrium , the state in which a chemical reaction proceeds at the same rate as its reverse reaction, resulting in ...

Cell membrane

... Passive transport Passive transport is a means of moving different chemical substances across membranes through diffusion of hydrophobic (non ... in a system. Unlike active transport, this process does not involve chemical energy ( ATP ). Active transport Typically moves molecules against ...

Homeostasis

... such as carbon dioxide and urea . Since these properties affect the chemical reactions that keep bodies alive, there are built-in physiological ... heat. Sweating cools the body with the use of evaporation . chemical regulation The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon to control ...

Hormone

... A hormone (from Greek horman - "to set in motion") is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. All ... 6 See also Structure Vertebrate hormones fall into four chemical classes: Amine-derived hormones are derivatives of the amino acids ...

Light-dependent reaction

... is the light-dependent reaction , which converts solar energy into chemical energy. Light absorbed by chlorophyll or other photosynthetic pigments ... , a process called photophosphorylation . ATP is a versatile source of chemical energy used in most biological processes. Note, however, that the light ...

Metabolism

... the Greek word for "change"), is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells . This includes the ... biochemical processes of an organism. The cell metabolism includes all chemical processes in a cell. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... an organism or sample, but gives relatively little information about the chemical or physical nature of that region--its chief value is in being able to ... of surrounding regions. MR spectroscopy, however, provides a wealth of chemical information about that region, as would an NMR spectrum of that region. ...

Nucleotide

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Nomenclature 2 chemical structures 2.1 Nucleotides 2.2 Deoxynucleotides 3 See ... For example, deoxy-cytosine-triphosphate is abbreviated as dCTP. chemical structures Nucleotides Adenosine monophosphate AMP ...

Nutrition

... of the animal before ingestion and after digestion as well as the chemical content of the food and the waste. The specific types of matter ... are also enzymes which play an important part in nutrition: these are chemical catalysts in our food and also produced in our digestive system. They ...
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