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Central in Biological Definition

Brain

... term can also be used for the invertebrate central nervous system . In most animals, the brain is ... behind each eye for visual processing and a central brain with three divisions. The cephalopod brain has a central group of lobes known as circumesophageal lobes ...

Genetics

... that genes code for proteins ; see the original central dogma of genetics 1944 Oswald Theodore ... Temin showed using RNA viruses that Watson's central dogma is not always true 1970 Restriction ... Related topics genetic screen central dogma of molecular biology gene regulatory ...

Human

... The physical appearance of the human body is central to culture and art . In every human culture, ... language , Origins of language .) Language is central to the communication between humans. The ... language [9] [10] (pdf). Language can be central to the sense of identity that unites cultures ...

Insulin

... ). The former are important because of their central role in movement, breathing, circulation, etc, ... manifests itself in impaired functioning of the central nervous system – dizzness, speech ... techniques. Dosage and timing The central problem for those requiring external insulin is ...

Neuron

... information from tissues and organs into the central nervous system . Efferent neurons transmit signals from the central nervous system to the effector cells . Interneurons connect neurons within the central nervous system . Anatomy and histology ...

Thermoregulation

... of heat are themselves probably regulated by the central nervous system, there being a thermogenic ... This diminished metabolism tells first on the central nervous system, especially the brain and those ... then become irregular and finally cease. The central nervous system is also profoundly affected, ...

Vacuole

... in protists 2 Vacuoles in plant cells: the central vacuole 3 Vacuoles in budding yeast cells ... protozoa . Vacuoles in plant cells: the central vacuole Most mature plant cells have a central vacuole , which often takes up more than 80% of ...

Apoptosis

... Both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways have in common the activation of central effectors of apoptosis , a group of cysteine proteases called caspases ... promotes free access to medical books ( [29] ) PubMed central (PMC), provided by the US National Library of Medicine, is a digital ...

Biology

... biochemistry, cells and the genetic code 1.2 Evolution: the central principle of biology 1.3 Diversity: the variety of living organisms ... morphological stages and include similar genes . Evolution: the central principle of biology Main article: Evolution One of the central, ...

Cancer

... is the most common infant malignancy, followed by the leukemias and the central nervous system cancers. Female infants and male infants have essentially ... from most frequently occurring to least: neuroblastoma , leukemia , central nervous system, retinoblastoma , Wilms' tumor , germ cell, soft tissue ...

Cilium

... microtubule doublets and other associated proteins. Motile cilia have a central core with two additional microtubule singlets and dynein motor proteins ... a cononical "9 + 2" structure. The non-motile cilia do not have the two central microtubule singlets and do not have dyneins. This configuration of ...

DNA

... and Crick, which they published in 1953 . Watson and Crick proposed the central dogma of molecular biology in 1957 , describing the process whereby ... April 25 . In an influential presentation in 1957 , Crick laid out the " central Dogma ", which foretold the relationship between DNA, RNA, and proteins, ...

Nervous system

... and processes input from the senses , and initiates actions . (see central Nervous System ). In animals with brains , the nervous system also ... The nervous systems of vertebrate animals are often divided into a central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS ...

Neurotransmitter

... such an impulse, by modifying the local membrane voltage potential. In the central nervous system, combined input from several synapses is usually required ... (glutamate, GABA, glycine) are used very generally throughout the central nervous system, others are only used in certain brain regions by ...

Nucleosome

... structures along the DNA. Structure The histones make up the central core particle of the nucleosome. The DNA is wrapped around this protein ... classically suggested that the 30 nm fiber is arranged into loops along a central protein scaffold to form transcriptionally active euchromatin . Further ...

Prion

... hypothesis was highly controversial, because it seemed to contradict the " central dogma of modern biology ", which asserts that all living organisms use ... hypothesis, and it is now widely accepted. Rather than contradicting the central role of DNA, however, the prion hypothesis suggests a special and possibly ...

Vestibular system

... systems 1.2 Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) 1.3 Mechanics 1.4 central Processing 2 Otoliths 3 Pathologies 3.1 BPPV 4 ... opposite to the velocity of the head in order to have clear vision. central Processing Signals from the vestibular system also project to the ...

Alternative splicing

... information is needed in order to decide which polypeptide is produced, given a DNA sequence and pre-mRNA. (This does not necessarily negate the central dogma of genetics which is about the flow of information from genes to proteins). Since the ways of regulation are inherited, the interpretation of ...

Andrew Huxley

... Lloyd Hodgkin on the basis of nerve " action potentials ," the electrical impulses that enable the activity of an organism to be coordinated by a central nervous system . Hodgkin and Huxley shared the prize that year with John Carew Eccles , who was cited for research on synapses . Hodgkin and ...

Archaea

... to other prokaryotes in most aspects of cell structure and metabolism . However, their genetic transcription and translation - the two central processes in molecular biology - do not show the typical bacterial features, but are extremely similar to those of eukaryotes . For instance, ...

Axon

... is formed by either of two types of glial cells : Schwann cells ensheathing peripheral neurons and oligodendrocytes insulating those of the central nervous system . Along myelinated nerve fibers, gaps in the sheath known as nodes of Ranvier occur at evenly spaced intervals, enabling an ...

Blastula

... cavity. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the development sequence. A blastula has around 128 cells, with a large central cavity called the blastocoel . Also called blastosphere . ...

Barbiturate

... Barbiturates are drugs that acts as central nervous system (CNS) depressants , and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia . Some also ...

Bone

... is much stronger. Woven bone is often replaced by lamellar bone as growth continues. Long bones are tubular in structure (e.g. the tibia ). The central shaft of a long bone is called the diaphysis , and has a hollow middle - the medullar cavity - filled with bone marrow. Surrounding the medullar ...

Citric acid cycle

... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle , the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle ) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration . In these aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a ...

Computed axial tomography

... and pelvic CT 3.4 Extremities 4 See also History The CT system was invented in 1972 by Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield of EMI central Research Laboratories (now Sensura [1] owned by Creative Technology Ltd.) using X-rays . Allan McLeod Cormack of Tufts University ...

Diabetes mellitus

... hormone that regulates uptake of glucose into cells (primarily muscle and fat cells) from the blood, deficiency of insulin or its action plays a central role in all forms of diabetes. Most of the carbohydrates in food are rapidly digested to glucose , the principal sugar in blood. Insulin is ...

Ebola

... on the 13 October 1976 by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at UC Davis , who was then working at the CDC . The nucleocapsid structure consists of a central channel, 20-30 nm in diameter, surrounded by helically wound capsid with a diameter of 40-50 nm and an interval of 5 nm. 7 nm glycoprotein spikes ...

Eugenics

... detractors (notably Thomas Hunt Morgan ). In 1924 , the Immigration Restriction Act was passed, with eugenicists for the first time playing a central role in the Congressional debate, as expert advisers on the threat of "inferior stock" from Eastern and Southern Europe. This reduced the number of ...

Evolution

... sickle cell anemia conferring resistance to malaria ) Frequency-dependent selection , where the rare variants have a higher fitness. The central role of natural selection in evolutionary theory has given rise to a strong connection between that field and the study of ecology . Mutations ...

Eukaryote

... or capture prey. In multicellular organisms, hormones are often produced in vesicles. In higher plants, most of a cell's volume is taken up by a central vacuole or tonoplast, which maintains its osmotic pressure. Mitochondria and plastids Mitochondria are organelles found in nearly all ...

Fermentation

... tai-tan tsoi , takana , takuan , totkal kimchi , tsa tzai , tsukemono (), umeboshi (), wasabi-zuke (), yen tsai (醃菜) central Asia : kumis (mare milk), kefir , shubat (camel milk) Africa : hibiscus seed, hot pepper sauce, lamoun makbouss , mauoloh , msir , ...

Flagellum

... of the cell and wiggle to produce propulsion. A eukaryotic flagellum is a bundle of nine fused pairs of microtubules doublets surrounding two central single microtubules. The so-called "9+2"" structure is the characteritics of the core of the eukaryotic flugellum called an axoneme . At the ...

Gene

... In 1953 , James D. Watson and Francis Crick demonstrated the molecular structure of DNA . Together, these discoveries established the central dogma of molecular biology , which states that proteins are transcribed from RNA which is translated from DNA. This dogma has since been shown to ...

Glucose

... the production of ATP , the cell's energy carrier. In addition, it is critical in the production of protein and in lipid metabolism. As the central nervous system does not metabolise lipids, it is more dependent on glucose than other tissues. Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream through ...

Golgi apparatus

... plasma membrane, lysosomes or endosomes and those that will be secreted from the cell, and sort them within vesicles . Thus, it functions as a central delivery system for the cell. Most of the transport vesicles that leave the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), specifically rough ER, are transported ...

Immunology

... scientic theory. The study of molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. The immune system has been divided into innate immune system , and acquired or adaptive immune system , the latter of which is ...

Kary Mullis

... Kary Banks Mullis (born December 28 , 1944 ) is a biochemist . In the 1980s , he invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a central technique in molecular biology which allows the amplification of specified DNA sequences. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the ...

Citric acid cycle

... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle , the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle ) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration . In these aerobic organisms , the citric acid cycle is a ...

Liver

... For purposes such as advanced liver surgery, it is crucial to understand the organization of liver based on blood supply and biliary drainage. The central area where the common bile duct , portal vein , and hepatic artery enter the liver is the hilum or "porta hepatis". The duct, vein, and artery ...
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