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Cellular in Biological Definition

Artificial life

... chemistries (AC), agent-based models , and cellular automata (CA). Artificial life is a meeting ... of the cells in an infinite grid -- the first cellular automaton . It was extraordinarily complicated ... professor John Conway invented the most famous cellular automata in the 1960s . He called it the Game ...

Cellular respiration

... cellular respiration is, in its broadest definition, the ... 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy In cellular respiration, this oxidation process is broken ... makes for a total gain of 38 ATP molecules during cellular respiration under optimal conditions; however, ...

Cytoskeleton

... The cytoskeleton is a cellular " scaffolding " or " skeleton " contained, as all ... of vesicles and organelles, for example) and cellular division. Contents ... just beneath the plasma membrane, as they keep cellular shape, form cytoplasmatic protuberancies (like ...

Morphogenesis

... along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation . Morphogenesis is concerned with ... of the syncytial blastoderm converting it to a cellular blastoderm. Wingless morphogen The ... cells to stabilize Engrailed expression after the cellular blastoderm forms. The reciprocal signaling by ...

Evolution

... fossils, research into the evolution of the basic cellular processes is also done largely by comparison of ... organisms share certain traits, including the cellular structure, and the genetic code . Most ... which had already developed the most fundamental cellular processes, but there is no scientific consensus ...

Immunology

... components of the immune system are actually cellular in nature and not associated with any specific ... scientic theory. The study of molecular and cellular components that comprise the immune system, ... of which is further divided into humoral and cellular components . The mainstay of classical ...

Insulin

... 2 Structure and production 3 Actions on cellular and metabolic level 4 Regulatory action on ... muscular layer of the arteries . Actions on cellular and metabolic level The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level include: cellular intake of certain substances, most prominently ...

Mathematical biology

... Modeling dynamic phenomena in molecular and cellular biology . C.U.P., 1984. ISBN 052127477X F. ... A. Goldbeter, Biochemical oscillations and cellular rhythms . C.U.P., 1996. ISBN 0521599466 E. ... computing , biostatistics , cellular automata , excitable medium , Ewens's sampling ...

Mitochondrion

... . Mitochondria are sometimes described as " cellular power plants ", because their primary function ... mitochondria is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP , mitochondria play an ... -mediated excitotoxic neuronal injury cellular proliferation Regulation of ...

Mitochondrion

... . Mitochondria are sometimes described as " cellular power plants ", because their primary function ... mitochondria is to convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP , mitochondria play an ... -mediated excitotoxic neuronal injury cellular proliferation Regulation of ...

Mitosis

... microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) and forming mitotic spindles . ... by cytokinesis or cleavage , where the cellular membrane pinches off between the two newly ... replication takes place without nuclear or cellular division, resulting in cells with many copies of ...

Morphogenesis

... along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation . Morphogenesis is concerned with ... of the syncytial blastoderm converting it to a cellular blastoderm. Wingless morphogen The ... cells to stabilize Engrailed expression after the cellular blastoderm forms. The reciprocal signaling by ...

Neuroscience

... of study, from the molecular level through the cellular level (individual neurons ), the level of ... - In principle, there is no distinction between cellular and molecular biology of the brain and of any ... system and the rest of the body, both in terms of cellular functions and the goals of the field, ...

Prion

... X" hypothesis) is that an as-yet unidentified cellular enzyme (Protein X) catalyzes the conversion of ... of this fungus can merge together and share cellular contents such as nutrients and cytoplasm. A ... form of HET-S spreads rapidly throughout the cellular network of a colony and can convert the non-prion ...

Signal transduction

... . Sensing in all forms of life depends, at the cellular level, on signal transduction. Contents ... converts the extracellular signal to an intra cellular one. Intracellular signalling molecules in ... second messengers . Intercellular Inter cellular communication is accomplished by extracellular ...

Mitosis

... microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) and forming mitotic spindles . ... by cytokinesis or cleavage , where the cellular membrane pinches off between the two newly ... replication takes place without nuclear or cellular division, resulting in cells with many copies of ...

Virus

... and taking over other cells as they lack the cellular machinery for self reproduction. The term virus ... 3.1 Viruses as tools for exploring basic cellular processes 3.2 Viruses as tools for genetic ... Some small viruses are more efficient than most cellular life forms as their ratio of functions to working ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... acids . ATP molecules are also used to store the energy plants make in cellular respiration . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 ... Synthesis ATP can be produced by various cellular processes, most typically in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation ...

Bioinformatics

... biology Systems biology involves the use of computer simulations of cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which ... networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. Artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand ...

Biophysics

... and physiology - channel biology, biomolecular interactions, cellular membranes, polyketides. Physics - biomolecular free energy, ... Topics in biophysics and related fields animal locomotion cellular biophysics channels , receptors and transporters ...

Cancer

... tumor cells than those which divide less, for example neurons . In cellular model systems , cells are exposed to carcinogenic influences (chemicals, ... Tumor cells keep dividing forever. Altered morphology . Building of cellular clusters ( foci ). Loss of contact inhibition . Low or no need for ...

Cell biology

... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or cytology ) is an academic discipline which studies the ... following ways: Cell fractionation Flow cytometry Release of cellular organelles by disruption of cells. Separation of different organelles by ...

Cell growth

... to larger sizes in larger cells. If a cell becomes too large, the normal cellular amount of DNA may not be adequate to keep the cell supplied with RNA . ... four special daughter cells ( gametes ) which have half the normal cellular amount of DNA. A male and a female gamete can then combine to produce ...

Bioinformatics

... biology Systems biology involves the use of computer simulations of cellular subsystems (such as the networks of metabolites and enzymes which ... networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. Artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand ...

Crista

... including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes , and function in cellular respiration . They provide more surface area for cellular respiration to happen. ...

DNA

... carrying genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses . DNA is sometimes referred to as the ... and the amino-acid sequence of the protein is determined by simple cellular rules of translation , known collectively as the genetic code . The ...

Electrophysiology

... of this flow and the potential changes related to them. At the cellular level, these include so-called passive recording as well "patch-clamp" ... in unmyelinated axons down to 100 nm. There are four main types of cellular electrophysiological recordings: 1. Intracellular recording. This ...

Gamete

... of the two gamete nuclei , and after multiple cell divisions and cellular differentiation , a zygote develops , first into an embryo , and ... be produced in the gonadal tissue through meiosis —a process of cellular division that reduces the number of sets of chromosomes from two to one ....

Gene

... as DNA, but some viruses carry only RNA. Because they use RNA, their cellular hosts may synthesize their proteins as soon as they are infected and ... one another on a chromosome may encode proteins that figure in the same cellular process or in completely unrelated processes. As an example of the former, ...

Glycome

... of the CFG, see above). Related topics Human Glycome Project cellular adhesion cellular communication See also List of omics topics in biology ...

Long-term potentiation

... hippocampus by Terje Lmo in 1966 and is commonly regarded as the cellular basis of memory . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 ... of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its ... When an axon of cell A is near ...

Meiosis

... events in meiosis Meiosis (a Greek word meaning "decrease") is a cellular process that forms the basis for sexual reproduction , together with ... chromoses are kept together by recombination nodules ), there is cellular growth and genetic transcription (and so chromosomes are seen less ...

Metabolism

... pathways that breakdown complex molecules into simple compounds: cellular respiration , metabolic pathways that create energy ( ATP and NADPH ) ... of life . Biodegradation External links Metabolism, cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and ...

Passive transport

... cell membrane via special carrier proteins that are embedded within the cellular membrane. A lot of large molecules, such as glucose, are insoluble in ... the complex will then be bonded to a receptor site and moved through the cellular membrane. Bear in mind, however, that facilitated diffusion is a passive ...

Proteome

... and has been applied to several different types of biological systems. A cellular proteome is the collection of proteins found in a particular cell ... be conceptualized as the complete set of proteins from all of the various cellular proteomes. This is very roughly the protein equivalent of the genome . ...

Reverse genetics

... is Morpholino antisense oligos. While RNAi acts by directing cellular systems to degrade target messenger RNA (mRNA), Morpholinos bind and block access to the target mRNA without requiring the activity of cellular proteins and without necessarily accelerating mRNA degradation. ...

Vacuole

... , wherever solutes go, water follows. This pressure is also helpful for cellular elongation: when the cell wall is degraded (not entirely) by the action of ... another function is that it pushes all the cell's cytoplasm against the cellular membrane, and thus keeps the chloroplasts closer to light. The ...

Virus classification

... of viruses arise because one of the two strands of DNA in which all cellular life forms store their genetic information is redundant, so that viruses ... or - polarity). The taxonomy of viruses is similar to that of cellular organisms: Order ( -virales ) Family ( -viridae ) Subfamily ( ...

Actin

... Actin is a globular protein that polymerize helicaly forming actin filaments (or microfilaments ), which like the other two components of the cellular cytoskeleton form a three-dimensional network inside an eukariotic cell . Actin filaments provide mechanical support for the cell, determine the ...

Active transport

... molecules across a membrane. Most of the enzymes that perform this type of transport are transmembrane ATPases . A primary ATPase universal to all cellular life is the sodium-potassium pump , which helps maintain the cell potential . Secondary In secondary active transport, there is no direct ...
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