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Cells in Biological Definition

Actin

... of the cell during cytokinesis . In muscle cells they play an essential role, along with myosin ... units. This rapid turnover is important for the cells movement. The protein cofilin binds to ... bundles are responsible for the supporting a cells microvilli. In vertebrates, the actin-bundling ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... to store and transport chemical energy within cells . ATP also plays an important role in the ... is about 0.1 mole . The energy used by human cells requires the hydrolysis of 200 to 300 moles of ... consumption. Other triphosphates Living cells also have other "high-energy" nucleoside ...

Alga

... motile cells Capsoid - individual non-motile cells embedded in mucilage Coccoid - individual non-motile cells with cell walls Palmelloid - non-motile cells embedded in mucilage Filamentous - a string ...

Animal

... forms a relatively flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex ... organisms like plants and fungi have cells held in place by cell walls , so develop by progressive growth. Also, unique to animal cells are the following intercellular junctions: tight ...

Antibody

... ). They are synthesized and secreted by B cells of the immune system. B cells are activated upon binding to their specific ... so they are often neglected.) Other immune cells partner with antibodies to eliminate pathogens ...

Antigen

... molecule used, several types of immune cells can leap into action. We can also classify ... or phagocytosis into the antigen presenting cells (APCs), and degraded into fragments. The ... II histocompatibility molecules to T helper cells (CD4 + ). Those that are specific for them, get ...

Apoptosis

... fingers in the developing embryo requires the cells in between the fingers to initiate apoptosis so ... interference in the apoptotic capability of cells plays a critical role in the fact that persistent ... In the adult organism, the number of cells within an organ or tissue has to be constant ...

B cell

... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the ... which is an organ unique to birds, where B cells mature. It does not (as commonly assumed among ... mammals) stand for bone marrow , where B cells are produced in all other vertebrates. The ...

Biology

... of biology 1.1 Universality: biochemistry, cells and the genetic code 1.2 Evolution: the ... interactions. Universality: biochemistry, cells and the genetic code Main article: Life ... . For example all forms of life consist of cells , which in turn, are based on a common carbon ...

Bacterium

... have cell walls , like plant and fungal cells , but with a very different composition ( ... this process, one cell divides into two daughter cells with the development of a transverse cell wall. ... genetic variations can occur within individual cells through recombinant events such as mutation ...

Biological tissue

... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. The study of ... connective tissue. Muscle tissue - Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each ... the size of the cell. Nervous tissue - cells forming the brain , spinal cord and ...

Biomechanics

... across all forms of life, from individual cells to whole organisms. The biomechanics of human ... this scale, the effects of individual red blood cells becomes significant, and whole blood can no ... cell type. These involuntarily contracted cells are located in the heart wall and operate in ...

Bone

... 2 Forms and structure of bone 3 cells of bone 4 Bone matrix 5 Bone ... any of the previous forms (e.g. vertebrae). cells of bone Bone is typically divided in to cells and matrices . ...

Blood

... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells ( red ...

Full blood count

... professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. Contents ... 3 Results from a blood count 3.1 Red cells 3.2 White cells 3.3 Platelets Automated blood ...

Cancer

... cell division and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues and spread to other areas of the body where the cells are not normally located ( metastasis ). Cancer ... to injury, immune responses, or to replace cells that have died or have been shed as a part of ...

Cartilage

... connective tissue . Cartilage is composed of cells called chondrocytes which are dispersed in a ... 1 Composition 1.1 cells 1.2 Fibers 1.3 Matrix 2 Types of ... connective tissue, cartilage is composed of cells , fibers and a matrix. ...

Cell division

... a mother cell ) dividing into two daughter cells . This leads to growth in multicellular ... ) in unicellular organisms . Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission . Eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear division, ...

Cell biology

... which studies the physiological properties of cells , as well as their behaviours , interactions, ... organisms like bacteria and specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans . Understanding the composition of cells and ...

Cell growth

... used in the context of reproduction of living cells the phrase "cell growth" is shorthand for the ... "parental" cell) divides to produce daughter cells . In other contexts, "cell growth" refers to ... 3 Related articles Cell size Many cells never have a large increase in size after they ...

Centriole

... cylindrical organelle found in most animal cells , and cells of fungi and algae though not frequently in ... other end points slightly inwards. In animal cells as well as certain algae and fungi, there exists ...

Chromosome

... cell inherits one set of chromatids. Once the cells have divided, the chromatids are uncoiled and can ... Sexually reproducing species have somatic cells (body cells), which are diploid [2n] (they ... (diploid) number of chromosomes of an organism, cells can be locked in metaphase in vitro (in a ...

Citric acid cycle

... reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular ... of its reactions are therefore important even in cells performing fermentation . Contents ... acids. These amino acids are brought into the cells and can be a source of energy by being funnelled ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... I MHC molecules of virus infected somatic cells and tumor cells. Once activated by a MHC-antigen complex, T C cells release the protein perforin , which forms ... , a serine protease , that can enter target cells via the perforin-formed pore and induce ...

Developmental biology

... . An understanding of the specialization of cells during embryogenesis may shield information on how to specialize stem cells to specific tissues and organs, which could lead ... pathways that relay signals from outside of cells to the cell nucleus. Signal transduction pathways ...

Diabetes mellitus

... hormone that regulates uptake of glucose into cells (primarily muscle and fat cells) from the blood, ... sugar in blood. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas in response to rising levels ... amount of insulin produced is insufficient, if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin ...

Ploidy

... called the monoploid number (x). The ploidy of cells can vary within an organism. In humans, most cells are diploid (containing one set of chromosomes from each parent), though sex cells ( sperm and oocytes ) are haploid. In ...

DNA

... by a nuclear envelope . In the complex cells that make up plants , animals and in other ... staining. At the same time, the DNA found in many cells can be macroscopic in length -- approximately 5 ... for strands in a human chromosome. Consequently, cells must compact or "package" DNA to carry it within ...

Down syndrome

... of the third copy of the chromosome 21 in cells throughout the body of the affected person. Other ... and water . Oxygen radicals produced in cells can be damaging to cellular structures, hence the ... peroxide (e.g., glutathione peroxidase ), the cells will suffer from a peroxide damage. Some ...

Edward's syndrome

... before conception , when egg and sperm cells are made. A healthy egg or sperm cell contains ... cell. However, sometimes egg and sperm cells are left with 24 (or more) chromosomes. It is the joining of these egg or sperm cells that eventually cause a trisomy fetus to be ...

Morphogenesis

... control the organized spatial distribution of cells that arises during the embryonic development of ... the change from a cluster of nearly identical cells at the blastula stage to a post- gastrulation ... factor proteins that determine the fate of cells by interacting with DNA . These can be coded for ...

Endosymbiotic theory

... in Cell Evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated as communities of interacting ... may have been the first endosymbionts, allowing cells to withstand growing amounts of free molecular ... External links The Birth of Complex cells - by Christian de Duve References ...

Enzyme

... Enzymes are necessary within biological cells to control molecular shapes and because many ... ferment sugar independent from the living yeast cells by Eduard Buchner , proving that the ... the participation of oxygen. Most of our cells (an exception being erythrocytes ), would ...

Bacterium

... have cell walls , like plant and fungal cells , but with a very different composition ( ... this process, one cell divides into two daughter cells with the development of a transverse cell wall. ... genetic variations can occur within individual cells through recombinant events such as mutation ...

Eukaryote

... Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells , in which the genetic material is organized into ... 7 References Structure Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotes, ... cell Internal membranes Eukaryotic cells include a variety of membrane-bound structures, ...

Cell membrane

... of cell behavior and the organization of cells in tissues. In animal cells, the cell ... attached to their extracellular domains. cells may vary the variety and the relative amounts of ... example, the "apical" surface of epithelial cells that line the vertebrate gut --and limits how ...

Gamete

... cells, or spores —are the specialized cells that come together during fertilization ... haploid gametes). The diploid somatic cells of an individual will contain one copy of the ... chromosome set from the egg—that is, the cells of the offspring will have genes expressing ...

Fungus

... that produce spores . Division of hyphae into cells is either incomplete, in which case the hyphae ... plants grow haustoria that pierce the plant cells and digest substances on the inside; some ... surface of each gill there are numerous hyphal cells called basidia , with several spores on the ...

Gene

... sense, genes are the segments of DNA which cells transcribe into RNA and translate , at ... the proteins they encode, genes govern the cells in which they reside. In multicellular organisms ... egg and the day-to-day functions of the cells that make up tissues and organs . The ...

Gene therapy

... is the insertion of genes into an individual's cells and tissues to treat a disease , and ... it is possible to transform either somatic cells (most cells of the body) ...
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