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Causes in Biological Definition

Cancer

... Complementary and alternative medicine 5 causes and pathophysiology 5.1 Molecular biology ... for the treatment of solid tumors. causes and pathophysiology Molecular biology ... Mutations can have various causes. Particular causes have been linked to specific types of cancer. ...

Diabetes mellitus

... 1 Statistics 2 causes and types 2.1 The role of insulin ... in the United States alone every year. causes and types The role of insulin Since ... ). Other research shows that type 2 diabetes causes obesity. 12 Type 2 is initially treated by ...

Extinction

... 1 Definition 1.1 Permanence 2 causes 2.1 Genetic and demographic causes 2.2 Habitat degradation 2.3 Predation, ... the popular novel and movie Jurassic Park . causes There are a variety ...

Infertility

... 1 Definition 2 causes 2.1 Female infertility 2.2 Male ... incapability to carry a pregnancy to term. causes According to the American Society for ... Hypospadias Impotence Some causes of male infertility can be determined by analysis ...

Insulin

... is converted to fatty acids; lack of insulin causes the reverse increased esterification of fatty ... from fatty acid esters; lack of insulin causes the reverse decreased proteinolysis – ... stores into blood fatty acids; lack of insulin causes the reverse decreased gluconeogenesis ...

Vitamin

... by Conrad Elvehjem in 1937 . Deficiency causes pellagra . Also known as Vitamin B 3 , ... Smith and E. G. Hendrick in 1926 . Deficiency causes ariboflavinosis . Also known as Vitamin B 2 ... by Kazimierz Funk in 1912 . Deficiency causes beriberi . Also known as Vitamin B 1 . ...

Allostery

... the T state over the R state The binding of substrate to one subunit causes all other subunits to assume the R state, thereby enhancing their affinity ... changes are not propagated to all subunits substrate binding causes increased substrate affinity in adjacent subunits Allosteric ...

Allostery

... the T state over the R state The binding of substrate to one subunit causes all other subunits to assume the R state, thereby enhancing their affinity ... changes are not propagated to all subunits substrate binding causes increased substrate affinity in adjacent subunits Allosteric ...

Antibiotic resistance

... a superbug . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 causes 2 Resistant pathogens 3 Alternatives to antibiotics 3.1 ... 3.3 Phage therapy 4 See also 5 External links causes Antibiotic resistance is a consequence of evolution via natural ...

Genetic code

... codons attempt to ensure that minor errors in the genetic code either only causes a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the amino acid's ... hydrophobic valine (Val) which reduces the solubility of -globin. This causes haemoglobin to form linear polymers linked by the hydrophobic interaction ...

Edward's syndrome

... trisomy fetus to be formed. It is this extra genetic information that causes all the trouble for individuals with Edward's Syndrome. As each and every ... 5 - 10% of liveborn infants will survive their first year of life. Major causes of death include apnea and heart abnormalities. It is impossible to ...

Genetic code

... codons attempt to ensure that minor errors in the genetic code either only causes a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the amino acid's ... hydrophobic valine (Val) which reduces the solubility of -globin. This causes haemoglobin to form linear polymers linked by the hydrophobic interaction ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Assumptions 2 causes of deviation 3 Derivation 4 Sex linkage 5 Generalizations ... no selection no mutation no migration ( gene flow ) causes of deviation When the Hardy–Weinberg assumptions are not met this ...

Malaria

... or marsh fever in English ) is an infectious disease which in humans causes about 500 million infections and 2 million deaths annually, mainly in the ... African origin. There is a theory that another hemoglobin mutation, which causes the genetic disease thalassemia , may also give its carriers an enhanced ...

Molecular evolution

... 2 Principles of molecular evolution 2.1 Mutations 2.2 causes of change in allele frequency 2.3 Molecular study of phylogeny 2.4 ... ; the modern interpretation of classic evolutionary theory. causes of change in allele frequency Main article: Population genetics ...

Antibiotic resistance

... a superbug . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 causes 2 Resistant pathogens 3 Alternatives to antibiotics 3.1 ... 3.3 Phage therapy 4 See also 5 External links causes Antibiotic resistance is a consequence of evolution via natural ...

Parasitology

... unicellular organisms such as Plasmodium spp., the organism which causes malaria , Leishmania donovani , the organism which causes leishmaniasis and multicellular organisms such as Schistosoma spp., ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... SSRIs were specifically designed while considering the biological causes of depression. SSRIs are frequently prescribed for anxiety disorders , ... Effect not well understood Some say that the supposed biological causes of depression, which SSRIs were designed for, have never in fact been ...

Stem cell

... in the treatment of infertility, increasing knowledge about the causes of congenital disease, increasing knowledge about the causes of miscarriages, developing more effective techniques of contraception, ...

Virus

... that cervical cancer is caused at least partly by papillomavirus (which causes papillomas, or warts), representing the first significant evidence in ... against viruses, and their misuse against viral infections is one of the causes of antibiotic resistance in bacteria . That said, sometimes the prudent ...

Abiogenesis

... One must conclude that, contrary to the established and current wisdom a scenario describing the genesis of life on earth by chance and natural causes which can be accepted on the basis of fact and not faith has not yet been written. (Yockey, 1977. A calculation of the probability of spontaneous ...

Active site

... cannot be processed by the enzyme. In noncompetitive inhibition , the inhibitor binds to the enzyme at another site, the allosteric site , and this causes a structural change in the enzyme such that the active site is rendered useless. Uncompetitive inhibition , is similar to noncompetitive inhibition ...

Albumin

... fatty acids) Transports unconjugated bilirubin Transports many drugs Competitively binds calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) Buffers pH causes of albumin deficiency: Cirrhosis of the liver (most commonly) Decreased production (as in starvation) Excess excretion by the kidneys ...

Ames test

... in genetics , generally genetic toxicology , to test for mutagenic properties of a chemical compound. A compound is said to be mutagenic if it causes a change in the DNA (deoxyriboneucleic acid) of a living cell or organism. The test is named after its inventor, Bruce Ames . General ...

Anatomy

... From the morphological point of view, however, human anatomy is a scientific and fascinating study, having for its object the discovery of the causes which have brought about the existing structure of humans, and needing a knowledge of the allied sciences of embryology or developmental biology ...

Antigen

... due to its molecular form . A tolerogen can become an immunogen if its molecular form is changed. Allergen - An allergen is any substance that causes an allergic reaction . It can be eaten, inhaled, injected or comes into contact with skin. Antigens are presented by a cell to its environment ...

Apoptosis

... defective apoptotic processes have been implicated in a very wide variety of diseases. As will also be explained in this article, too much apoptosis causes cell-loss disorders, while too little results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, as in cancerous tumors. Not all forms of PCD share the ...

ATP synthase

... of 6 subunits , alternating alpha and beta subunits, that form a ring around an asymmetrical gamma subunit. Facilitated diffusion of protons causes the F O particle to rotate, rotating the gamma subunit of F 1 , while the major F 1 subunits are fixed in place. This rotation forces a ...

Avian influenza

... They found "a clear temporal pattern of progressively increasing pathogenicity". [1] Symptoms In humans, it has been found that avian flu causes similar symptoms to other types of flu: fever cough sore throat muscle aches conjunctivitis in severe cases of avian flu, ...

Bacterium

... meaning "small stick". Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) described the role of bacteria as conveyors and causes of disease or pathogens . Originally the bacteria were considered microscopic fungi (called Schizomycetes), except for the photosynthetic ...

Biological psychology

... of the brain , from neurotransmitters to the cerebral cortex to treat their patients. Others may use this knowledge to search for biological causes for common mental illnesses, such as depression and schizophrenia . Many psychologists focus largely on the mental processes of their ...

Blood

... medical conditions from ischemia in the short term to tissue necrosis and gangrene in the long term. Hemophilia is a genetic illness that causes dysfunction in one of the blood's clotting mechanisms . This can allow otherwise inconsequential wounds to be life-threatening, but more commonly ...

Botany

... botanical works, written around 300 BC , are two large treatises by Theophrastus : On the History of Plants ( Historia Plantarum ) and On the causes of Plants . Together these books constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and on into the Middle Ages. The ...

Brain

... can trigger a general arousal process that decreases reliance on cortical processes, or that enhances and focuses cortical processes. Such diverse causes as hunger, fatigue, beliefs, unfamiliar information or actual threats can trigger an alert response that can exert control over cognitive ...

Cartilage

... chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate of long bones results in a form of dwarfism . Costochondritis : Inflammation of cartilage in the ribs which causes chest pain Herniated disk : Asymmetrical compression of a disk ruptures the cartilage ring, causing tissue to herniate into the spinal canal . ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... Once activated by a MHC-antigen complex, T C cells release the protein perforin , which forms pores in the target cell's plasma membrane ; this causes ions and water to flow into the target cell, making it expand and eventually lyse . T C also release granzyme , a serine protease , that can ...

Digestion

... the mouth to release digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase , which aid in the breakdown of food, particularly carbohydrates . Chewing also causes the release of saliva , which helps condense food into a bolus that can be easily passed through the esophagus to the stomach . In the stomach, ...

DNA

... occur in the synthesis are known as mutations . The process known as PCR mimics this process in vitro in a nonliving system. Because pairing causes the nucleotide bases to face the helical axis, the sugar and phosphate groups of the nucleotides run along the outside; the two chains they form are ...

Down syndrome

... Down syndrome. Ts65Dn mouse has genes on chromosomes 16 that are very similar to the human chromosome 21 genes. With this animal model , the exact causes of Down syndrome neurological symptoms may soon be elucidated. Naturally, Ts65Dn research is also likely to highly benefit Alzheimer's research. ...

Escherichia coli

... reasons for using E. coli are that there are a lot more coliforms in human feces than there are pathogens (such as Salmonella typhi , which causes typhoid ), and E. coli is usually harmless, so it can't "get loose" in the lab and hurt anyone. It can be misleading to use E. coli as an ...
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