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Carbon in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... a hydroxyl group ( - O H ) is bound to a carbon atom, which in turn is bound to other hydrogen and/or carbon atoms. The general formula for a simple alcohol ... (3), based upon the number of carbons the C-OH carbon (shown in red) is bonded to. Ethanol is the ...

Amine

... or other groups where the nitrogen is bonded to a carbon atom in the group (groups symbolized by R ... one the hydrogens in ammonia is replaced by a carbon based group, then it is a primary amine . If two of the hydrogens are replaced by two carbon based groups, then it is a secondary amine . If ...

Biology

... of cells , which in turn, are based on a common carbon -based biochemistry . All organisms pass on ... of the ecosystem , for example when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels rise, plants are able to grow better and thus remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Tissues and ...

Blood

... tissues and to remove waste products (such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid ). Blood also enables ... 3.2 Transport of oxygen 3.3 Transport of carbon dioxide 3.4 Transport of hydrogen ions ... 1.5% is physically dissolved. Transport of carbon dioxide When systemic arterial blood flows ...

Calvin cycle

... these short-lived energy carriers to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds that can be ... organism. This set of reactions is also called carbon fixation . The key enzyme of the cycle is ... Cycle Ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate (RuBP) + carbon dioxide → 3-phosphoroglycerate (catalysed by ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... Crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM ) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic ... be able to carry out photosynthesis , since carbon dioxide from the air wouldn't be available. ... the night, and it is then that they take in carbon dioxide. They store it as malate and other, ...

C4 carbon fixation

... of C4 , see C4 (disambiguation) C 4 carbon fixation is a common metabolic pathway found in ... The C 4 cycle allows for a spacial separation of carbon fixation from respiration, thus allowing C 4 ... because the product, oxaloacetate, contains four carbon atoms. It occurs in the mesophyll of the leaf ...

Crassulacean acid metabolism

... Crassulacean acid metabolism ( CAM ) is a carbon fixation pathway in some photosynthetic ... be able to carry out photosynthesis , since carbon dioxide from the air wouldn't be available. ... the night, and it is then that they take in carbon dioxide. They store it as malate and other, ...

Carbohydrate

... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon ) are chemical compounds that act as the ... projection ) Pure carbohydrates contain carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen atoms , in a 1:2:1 ... many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon except the functional group. Other carbohydrates ...

Carbon fixation

... carbon fixation is a process found in photosynthesis in autotrophic plants . It is when the three carbon dioxide molecules taken in each time there is a ... the dark reactions of photosynthesis. These three carbon dioxide molecules undergo the chemical reactions ...

Cellular respiration

... transferred from an energy-rich atom (such as a carbon atom in an organic molecule) to an oxygen atom, ... atoms through an ATP synthase, as well as carbon dioxide and water . This makes for a total ... sulfites, sulfur dioxide, and elemental sulfur), carbon dioxide, iron compounds, manganese compounds, ...

Diffusion

... membrane, oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out. Facilitated ... strings, making them thicker and more flexible. carbon dioxide bubbles in soft drinks start as small nuclei and grow because of the diffusion of carbon dioxide molecules towards them. A smelly gas ...

Fermentation

... converts the sugars from the malt into alcohol, carbon dioxide and other components through a process ... , grains into beer , and carbohydrates into carbon dioxide to leaven bread . According to ... Products Yeast produce ethanol and carbon dioxide gas. When the ferment has a high ...

Glucose

... a hexose —a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms . Glucose is an aldehyde (contains a ... for six-carbon aldoses . In this ring, each carbon is linked to hydroxyl and hydrogen side groups ... exception of the fifth atom, which links to a 6th carbon atom outside the ring, forming a CH 2 OH group. ...

Heterotroph

... that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. Contrast with autotrophs which use carbon dioxide as sole carbon source. All animals are heterotrophic, as well ...

Photosynthesis

... derived from them. Most notably, they use carbon dioxide gas and water to produce sugars and ... and other compounds react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and chemical energy. However, ... is only produced from the water, and not from the carbon dioxide that plants use. This was first proposed ...

Homeostasis

... For instance, when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the human body increases, the lungs ... to increase their activity and expel more carbon dioxide. In positive feedback , the response ... generally accepted. For example, when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels rise, plants are able to grow ...

Life

... All life on Earth is based on the chemistry of carbon compounds. Some assert that this must be the ... the universe; others describe this position as ' carbon chauvinism '. Other definitions Other ... water based, lipid - protein bound, carbon metabolic, nucleic acid replicated, protein ...

Redox

... a simple redox process, such as the combustion of carbon by oxygen to yield carbon dioxide, it could be the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane, or it could be the ...

Pentose phosphate pathway

... generate NADPH and the synthesis of pentose (5- carbon ) sugars . There are two distinct phases in the ... the second is the non-oxidative synthesis of 5 carbon sugars. The pathway is one of the three main ... dehydrogenase . The hydroxyl group located on carbon 1 of glucose 6-phosphate is converted into a keto ...

Photosynthesis

... derived from them. Most notably, they use carbon dioxide gas and water to produce sugars and ... and other compounds react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and chemical energy. However, ... is only produced from the water, and not from the carbon dioxide that plants use. This was first proposed ...

Primary nutritional groups

... their carbon, energy, and electron sources. carbon source refers to the source of carbon used by an organism for growth and development. ... when using organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development, whereas it is ...

Redox

... a simple redox process, such as the combustion of carbon by oxygen to yield carbon dioxide, it could be the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane, or it could be the ...

Stoma

... , and used for gas exchange. Air containing carbon dioxide and oxygen enters the plant through ... Paradox As the key reactant in photosynthesis, carbon dioxide, is found in the atmosphere, most plants ... they open the stoma at night and store the carbon dioxide for use during the following day, ...

Autotroph

... an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy ....

Bacterium

... carbon, while autotrophs are able to synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. Autotrophs that obtain energy by oxidizing chemical ... reducing equivalent sources (lithotrophy or organotrophy) and carbon sources (autotrophy or heterotrophy) can be combined differently in any ...

Chemautotrophic

... An chemautotroph is an organism that obtains its carbon from carbon dioxide using the oxidation of inorganic chemical compounds. See ...

Citric acid cycle

... part of the break down of carbohydrates , fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water in order to generate energy. It is the second of ... catabolism (including glycolysis ) produces acetyl-CoA , a two- carbon acetyl group bound to coenzyme A . Acetyl-CoA is the main input to the ...

Enzyme

... from RNA into DNA Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase : fixes carbon in green plants. RNAse : those enzymes which can break down RNA into ... residue in a protein Tyrosinase Urease : hydrolizes urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia Xanthine oxidase : oxidizes hypoxanthine to ...

Bacterium

... carbon, while autotrophs are able to synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. Autotrophs that obtain energy by oxidizing chemical ... reducing equivalent sources (lithotrophy or organotrophy) and carbon sources (autotrophy or heterotrophy) can be combined differently in any ...

Halobacteria

... electron transport, however, and halobacteria are incapable of fixing carbon from carbon dioxide . ...

Citric acid cycle

... part of the break down of carbohydrates , fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and water in order to generate energy. It is the second of ... catabolism (including glycolysis ) produces acetyl-CoA , a two- carbon acetyl group bound to coenzyme A . Acetyl-CoA is the main input to the ...

Marine biology

... between life in the sea and important cycles of matter (such as the carbon cycle ) and movement of energy through ecosystems is also growing, despite ... and ocean life, and global weather and environmental issues (such as carbon dioxide displacement). Recent marine biotechnology has focused largely ...

Plant

... , and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis , using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About 300 plant species do not ... are close relatives of animals . Importance The photosynthesis and carbon fixation conducted by land plants and algae are the ultimate source of ...

Plant

... , and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis , using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About 300 plant species do not ... are close relatives of animals . Importance The photosynthesis and carbon fixation conducted by land plants and algae are the ultimate source of ...

Coenzyme A

... ; the addition of the acetyl group to choline a reaction that is catalysed by choline acetyltransferase . Its main task is conveying the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production. The conversion of pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA ...

Amino acid

... term is frequently used to refer to alpha amino acids: those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate functionalities are attached to the same carbon . Amino acid residue is what is left of an amino acid once a water molecule has been lost (an H+ from the nitrogenous side and an OH- ...

Antibody

... B-lymphocytes into plasma and memory cells. IgE IgE is a monomeric immunoglobulin with the heavy chain ε. It contains a lot of carbon hydrates. Its molecular mass is 190 kD. It can be found on the surface of the plasma membrane of basophils and mast cells of connective tissue . ...

Artificial life

... See also artificial consciousness artificial chemistry digital organisms evolutionary art clanking replicator carbon chauvinism robotics systems biology wet alife neural nets Lindenmayer systems game theory Open problems ...

Botany

... They generate the oxygen , food , fibres , fuel and medicine that allow higher life forms to exist. While doing all this, plants also absorb carbon dioxide , an important greenhouse gas , through photosynthesis . A good understanding of plants is crucial to the future of our society as it ...
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