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Calcium in Biological Definition

Active transport

... three sodium ions into the cell to transport one calcium out. Many cells also posses a calcium ATPase, which can operate at lower intracellular concentrations of calcium and sets the normal or resting concentration of ...

Bone

... ; are also involved with cell formation , calcium metabolism , and mineral storage . The bones of ... weight composite material , formed mostly of calcium phosphate (in the chemical arrangement termed calcium hydroxyapatite), which has relatively high ...

Insulin

... On depolarisation , voltage controlled calcium channels (Ca2+) open and calcium flows into the cells An increased calcium level in the cells causes release of previously ...

Plasmolysis

... (outer) tissue is immersed in a solution of calcium nitrate , cells rapidly lose water by osmosis and ... of the cells shrinks. This occurs because the calcium and nitrate ions freely permeate the cell ... with much lower osmotic pressure than that of the calcium nitrate solution on the other side of the ...

Ion channel

... voltage-gated channels of nerve and muscle, and the voltage-gated calcium channels that control neurotransmitter release in pre-synaptic endings ... is depolarized. Some calcium-sensitive potassium channels respond to both calcium and depolarization, with an excess of one apparently being sufficient to ...

Neurotransmitter

... action potential travels to the synapse, the rapid depolarization causes calcium ion channels to open. calcium then stimulates the transport of vesicles to the synaptic membrane: the ...

Albumin

... soluble ones Transports fatty acids ("free" fatty acids) Transports unconjugated bilirubin Transports many drugs Competitively binds calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) Buffers pH Causes of albumin deficiency: Cirrhosis of the liver (most commonly) Decreased production (as in ...

Bacterium

... . Other nutritional requirements include nitrogen , sulfur , phosphorus , vitamins and metallic elements such as sodium , potassium , calcium , magnesium , manganese , iron , zinc , cobalt , copper and nickel for normal growth. For some species, additional trace elements such as ...

Cancer

... receiving much lower amounts of supplemental wheat bran fiber. On the other hand, there is evidence from at least 1 randomized controlled trial that calcium supplementation does modestly reduce risk of adenoma recurrence. The "chemoprevention database" [1] gives results of all published randomized ...

Chromatography

... and for the qualitative analysis of reaction products. TLC plates are made by mixing the adsorbent with a small amount of inert binder like calcium sulfate (gypsum) and water, spreading the a thick slurry on the carrier, drying the plate, and activation of the adsorbent by heating in an oven. ...

Depolarization

... with respect to the extracellular solution. Depolarization typically results from the influx of positively charged ions (such as sodium or calcium ) into the cell. Alternatively, depolarization can also happen if potassium channels are closed. Compare to hyperpolarization . Depolarization of ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... ), and also plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism , detoxification of the cell (enzymes in the smooth ER detoxify chemicals), and calcium storage. It also is a large transporter of nutrient found in each cell. Functions The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, ...

Bacterium

... . Other nutritional requirements include nitrogen , sulfur , phosphorus , vitamins and metallic elements such as sodium , potassium , calcium , magnesium , manganese , iron , zinc , cobalt , copper and nickel for normal growth. For some species, additional trace elements such as ...

Long-term potentiation

... in rat visual cortex". Nature 330 (6149), 649-52. PMID 2446147 ^ Weisskopf MG, Bauer EP, LeDoux JE (1999) "L-type voltage-gated calcium channels mediate NMDA-independent associative long-term potentiation at thalamic input synapses to the amygdala". J Neurosci 19 (23), 10512-9. ...

Molecular biology

... DNA into eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells, is called transfection. Several different transfection techniques are available, including calcium phosphate transfection, liposome transfection , and proprietary transfection reagents such as Fugene. DNA can also be introduced into cells using ...

Nephron

... human life. The nephron filters the blood by several processes concentrating the filtrates, reabsorbing ions (such as sodium , potassium , calcium , hydrogen , bicarbonate , chloride , and ammonium ions ), solutes (such as glucose , amino acids , phosphates , and so on) according to ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... ), and also plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism , detoxification of the cell (enzymes in the smooth ER detoxify chemicals), and calcium storage. It also is a large transporter of nutrient found in each cell. Functions The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... ), and also plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism , detoxification of the cell (enzymes in the smooth ER detoxify chemicals), and calcium storage. It also is a large transporter of nutrient found in each cell. Functions The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, ...

Signal transduction

... eukaryotic cells include heterotrimeric G protein , small GTPases , cyclic nucleotides , such as cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), calcium ion , phophoinositide derivatives, such as Phosphatidylinositol-triphosphate (PIP 3 ), Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Inositol-triphosphate ( IP 3 ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... ), and also plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism , detoxification of the cell (enzymes in the smooth ER detoxify chemicals), and calcium storage. It also is a large transporter of nutrient found in each cell. Functions The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, ...

Synapse

... vesicles containing neurotransmitter sit "docked" and ready at the synaptic membrane. The arriving action potential produces an influx of calcium ions through voltage-dependent, calcium-selective ion channels , at which point the vesicles fuse with the membrane and release their contents to ...

Vacuole

... interior. It is surrounded by a membrane, called the tonoplast . This vacuole houses large amounts of water, enzymes , inorganic ions (such as calcium ) and other substances, like toxic byproducts which are hence removed from the cytosol. By letting protons in, it helps in keeping the cell's pH ...
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