... with their environment . Biology encompasses a broad
spectrum of academic fields that are often viewed ... of clustered sub-disciplines. We consider four broad
groupings here. The first broad
group consists of disciplines that study the ...
... that are quickly mobilized and triggered by receptors that recognize a broad
spectrum of pathogens. Plants and many lower animals do not possess an ... immune system
Many disorders of the human immune system fall into two broad
categories: those characterized by attenuated immune response and those ...
... Immunology is a broad
branch of biomedical science that covers study of all aspects of the ... perspective.
Many diseases caused by the immune system fall into two broad
categories: immunodeficiency , in which parts of the immune system fail ...
... chloroplast containing cells ( chlorenchyma tissue) to light over a broad
area, and to allow light to penetrate fully into the tissues. Leaves are ... deeply wrinkled; with veins clearly visible.
scurfy: covered with tiny, broad
tuberculate: covered with tubercles; covered with ...
... bionomics and morphography, have largely been subsumed into more broad
areas of biology which include studies of mechanisms common to both plants and animals. The biology of animals is covered in several broad
The physiology of animals is studied under various fields ...
... treat infections in humans, where its effect was found to be due to its conversion in the host to the active form, sulfanilimide . By today's more broad
definition, this would likely qualify as the first successful use of an oral antibiotic. During the same era, Rene Dubos isolated tyrothricin , ...
... ecosystems with which we are familiar.
The emergence of novel traits
Mechanisms of inheritance
In Darwin's time, scientists did not share broad
agreement on how traits were inherited. Today most inherited traits are traced to discrete, persistent entities called genes , encoded in linear ...
... and processing of sequence data.
An article on glycomics appeared New Scientist 26 October , 2002 . It provides a broad
insight into some of the challenges and opportunties posed by glycomics, as of 2002.
Major histocompatibility complex
... is to explain the evolutionary forces that have created and maintained such diversity. Most explanations invoke balancing selection , a broad
term which identifies any kind of natural selection in which no single allele is absolutely most fit. Frequency dependent selection and ...
... gives the following information:
"Far more is now known about the science of nutrition than ever before and the overriding message is that a very broad
diet, taking in vital categories of essential nutrients, is better than a narrowly focussed diet, even if that diet sets out to avoid dangerous ...
... into a representation of the odor. Since most odor molecules have many individual features, the combination of features gives the olfactory system a broad
range of odors that it can detect.
Odor information is easily stored in long term memory and has strong connections to emotional memory . This ...
Polymerase chain reaction
... reduces nonspecific primer annealing is Touchdown PCR .
Real-Time PCR is a quantative PCR technique.
Uses of PCR
PCR can be used for a broad
variety of experiments and analyzes. Some examples are discussed below.
Genetic fingerprinting is a forensic ...
... reliably distinguishable from other species? Secondly, is it likely to remain so in the future? To take the second question first, there are several broad
The proposed species are sympatric —they occupy the same habitat. Observation of many species over the years ...