was suggested as early as the time of Plato , ... schools for the deaf could be considered possible breeding
places of a deaf human race.
Nazi Germany ... the natural application of knowledge about breeding
to the arena of human life. Before the death ...
... been domesticating plants and animals. Selective breeding
of plants and animals has led to varieties that ... of different dog breeds. The power of human breeding
to create varieties with extreme differences from ... with the bacterium Escherichia coli . Plant breeding
Reviews 24 , 225-265.
S. F. Elena and R. E. ...
... to distinguish species; both anatomy and breeding
behavior are still important to assigning species ... the differences. This is not to say that cross breeding
does not take place at all, simply that it has ... hybrid individuals are less capable of successful breeding
than pure-bred individuals of either species.
... lack of genetic diversity would still remain in the attempt to establish a breeding
While the promise of cloning extinct ... way of propagating desirable genes (as chosen by humans) than traditional breeding
Another application which has recently become feasible is the cloning ...
... a row producing 70% heads is only about one in 25,000.
Similarly, in a breeding
population, if an allele has a frequency of p , probability theory ... frequency p' .
As in the coin toss example above, the size of the breeding
population (the effective population size ) governs the strength of the ...
... with a single plant. Based on many years of careful, tedious breeding
experiments, Mendel developed several fundamental laws of Mendelian ... can be traced to his choice to start his experiments only with true breeding
plants. He also only measured absolute characteristics such as color, ...
... ecological effects of biodiversity .
Unusual and wild strains of maize are collected to increase the crop diversity when selectively breeding
Economic role of biodiversity
For all humans, biodiversity is first a resource for daily life. Such 'crop diversity' is ...
8000BC Collecting of seeds for replanting. Evidence that Babylonians , Egyptians and Romans used selective breeding
( artificial selection ) practices to improve livestock .
6000BC Brewing beer , fermenting wine , baking bread with help of yeast
... the food we eat is therefore important to be able to feed the world and provide food security for future generations, for example through plant breeding
. Not all plants are beneficial to humans, weeds are a considerable problem in agriculture and botany provides some of the basic science in order ...
... , and provided science with a way to map characteristics to a location on the chromosomes . Linkage maps are still used today, especially in breeding
for plant improvement .
After the discovery of the genetic code and such tools of cloning as restriction enzymes , the avenues of ...
... located in Maridi. Unfortunately, the nurses there also did not properly sterilize their needles, and the hospital, like the one in Yambuku, became a breeding
ground for new Ebola cases (Draper 30-31). Several epidemics of Ebola-Zare and Ebola-Sudan have occurred since 1976 .
The most recent outbreak of ...
... as islands, or distinct bioregions (such as the small bioregions of the Amazon basin ). These often do not have enough food to support a viable breeding
population of homeothermic animals. In these niches, poikilotherms such as large lizards, crabs and frogs supplant homeotherms such as birds and ...
... attempt to maintain a viable population for species preservation and possible future reintroduction to the wild through use of carefully planned breeding
Pinpointing the extinction or pseudoextinction of a species requires a clear definition of that species. The species in question must ...
... in a letter to Adam Sedgewick, dated April 18 , 1905 .
Humans began applying knowledge of genetics in prehistory with the domestication and breeding
of plants and animals. In modern research, genetics provides important tools in the investigation of the function of a particular gene, e.g. ...
... stock of human DNA is minute compared to that of other species; and that around 74,000 years ago, human population was reduced to a small number of breeding
pairs, possibly as small as 1000, resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this bottleneck have been postulated, the most ...
... mosquitos have been successful in some areas. Malaria was once common in the United States and southern Europe , but the draining of wetland breeding
grounds and better sanitation eliminated it from affluent regions.
Sterile insect technique is emerging as a potential method to control ...
Neutral theory of molecular evolution
... the concept of "near-neutrality", that is, genes that are affected mostly by drift or mostly by selection depending on the effective size of a breeding
population. The neutralist-selectionist quarrel has since cooled, yet the question of the relative percentages of neutral and non-neutral alleles ...
... (it doesn't take chemistry or sequencing to determine a person's eye color), classical genetics uses phenotypes to deduce the functions of genes. breeding
experiments can then check these inferences. In this way, early geneticists were able to trace inheritance patterns without any knowledge whatsoever ...
... biology , in particular in that branch of ecology known as population biology , and in population genetics . In biology, a population denotes a breeding
group whose members breed mostly or solely among themselves, usually as a result of physical isolation, although biologically they could breed with ...
... theory that exist in parallel, traditional population genetics operating in the genotype space and the biometric theory used in plant and animal breeding
, operating in phenotype space. The missing part is the mapping between the genotype and phenotype space. This leads to a "sleight of hand" (as ...
... of Agriculture (1915-1925), the University of Chicago (1926-1955), and the University of Wisconsin (1955-1988). Wright also did extensive breeding
experiments with guinea pigs , and appreciated by 1917 that genes controlled the production of enzymes. Many of his Ph.D. students became ...