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Branch in Biological Definition

Anatomy

... (from the Greek anatome , from ana-temnein , to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living ... secondly, to give the non-expert inquirer, or the worker in some other branch of science, the chief theories on which the modern scientific groundwork ...

Bioinformatics

... in bioinformatics research is the notion of homology . In the genomic branch of bioinformatics, homology is used to predict the function of a gene: if ... unknown, one could infer that B may share A's function. In the structural branch of bioinformatics homology is used to determine which parts of the protein ...

Cladistics

... systematics ( Greek : phylon = race and genetic = birth) is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living ... Thus in a cladogram that includes four mammals and a bird, the bird's branch is basal, but a dog would be nested within the mammals. Similarly, a ...

Bioinformatics

... in bioinformatics research is the notion of homology . In the genomic branch of bioinformatics, homology is used to predict the function of a gene: if ... unknown, one could infer that B may share A's function. In the structural branch of bioinformatics homology is used to determine which parts of the protein ...

Adaptive radiation

... change. A species that can, in contrast to the other species in the ecosystem, successfully survive in a radically changed environment will probably branch into new species that cover the new ecological niches created by the environmental change. An example of adaptive radiation as the result of an ...

Axon

... at evenly spaced intervals, enabling an especially rapid mode of electrical impulse propagation called saltation . The axons of some neurons branch to form axon collaterals , along which the bifurcated impulse travels simultaneously to signal more than one other cell. History Some of the ...

Biology

... science. Ethology studies animal behavior (particularly of social animals such as primates and canids ), and is sometimes considered as a branch of zoology . Ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behavior and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory ...

Biochemistry

... Further information may be obtained in the English language by contacting The Institute of Biochemic medicine (Asia Pacific) A branch of the Biochemischer Bund Deutschland - which is located in Australia biochemics@bigpond.com.au See also Biochemistry key topics List ...

Botany

... Botany is the scientific study of plant life . As a branch of biology , it is also sometimes referred to as plant science(s) or plant biology . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that ...

Brain

... problem , and many others are the subject of the philosophy of mind : what is consciousness ? Do non-human animals have consciousness? Another branch of philosophy, epistemology , discusses the notion that we could be brains in vats , and that the reality around us could be simulated . While ...

Electrophysiology

... Electrophysiology is the science and branch of physiology that pertains to the flow of ions in biological tissues and, in particular, to the electrical recording techniques that enable the ...

Epigenetics

... to be epigenetic. The biologist C.H. Waddington is sometimes credited with coining the term epigenetics in 1942, when he defined it as “the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions between genes and their products which bring the phenotype into being”. However the term goes ...

Ernst Haeckel

... work in Germany . Haeckel was a physician and later a professor of comparative anatomy . He was one of the first to consider psychology as a branch of physiology . He also proposed many now ubiquitous terms including " phylum " and " ecology ." His chief interests lay in evolution and life ...

Evolution

... These changes may be due to a number of processes: mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, as well as natural selection. Population genetics is the branch of biology that provides the mathematical structure for the study of the process of microevolution. Macroevolution works through large-scale ...

Herpetology

... Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians , including their classification, ecology, behavior, physiology, anatomy , and ...

Human

... science of psychology studies the human psyche. The term psyche describes the mental and emotional attributes of an individual or group. One branch of psychology, psychoanalysis , which is not regarded as a science, was devised by Sigmund Freud , and attempts to reveal, through frequent ...

Ichthyology

... Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish . This includes the bony fish ( Osteichthyes ), the cartilaginous fish ( Chondrichthyes ) such as sharks ...

Immunology

... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms . It deals with, among other things, the ...

Lichen

... Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall Foliose lichen on basalt Usnea australis , a fruticose form, growing on a tree branch Lichens are symbiotic organisms made up by the association of microscopic green algae or cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi . ...

Liver

... and passes upward along the free margin of the falciform ligament of the liver to the inferior surface of the liver. There it joins with the left branch of the portal vein. The ductus venosus carries blood from the left portal vein to the left hepatic vein and thence to the inferior vena cava , ...

Lung

... to some degree. As a result, air is sucked into and pushed out of the lungs through the trachea and the bronchial tubes or bronchi; these branch out and end in alveoli which are tiny sacs surrounded by capillaries filled with blood. Here oxygen from the air diffuses into the blood, ...

Marine biology

... biotechnology has focused largely on marine biomolecules , especially proteins , that may have uses in medicine or engineering. An interesting branch of marine biology is aquaculture . Marine environments are the home to many exotic biological materials that may inspire biomimetic materials . ...

Microevolution

... changes may be due to several processes: mutation , gene flow , genetic drift , as well as natural selection . Population genetics is the branch of biology that provides the mathematical structure for the study of the process of microevolution. Biologists distinguish between microevolution ...

Molecular phylogeny

... possible to do so can be seen by the ever more popular use of genetic testing to determine a child's paternity , as well as the emergence of a new branch of criminal forensics focused on genetic evidence. The effect on traditional scientific classification schemes in the biological sciences has ...

Mycology

... such as poisoning or infection . Mycology is closely related to phytopathology : the study of plant diseases. Historically, mycology was a branch of Botany (despite fungi not being plants and being evolutionarily more closely related to animals than plants). Pioneer mycologists were ...

Nephron

... 2 Proximal tubule 3 Loop of Henle 4 Distal tubule 5 Collecting duct 6 See also Bowman's capsule The renal arteries branch quickly into very small capillaries that make up the glomerulus of the nephron. The blood pressure within the capillaries squeezes liquid into ...

Outbreak

... high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. The study of pathogenic viral outbreaks is a branch of epidemiology and usually refers to virus outbreaks that make people, animals, or plants sick. As with bacterial outbreaks, viral outbreaks are ...

Population

... Other aspects are studied in sociology , economics , and geography . Plant and animal populations are studied in biology , in particular in that branch of ecology known as population biology , and in population genetics . In biology, a population denotes a breeding group whose members breed ...

Population dynamics

... in one or several populations , and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. Population dynamics is the dominant branch of mathematical biology , which has a history of more than 200 years. The early period was dominated by demographic studies such as the work of ...

Sequencing

... also biopolymers, it is not so common to talk of 'sequencing' a polysaccharide, because a symbolic linear depiction cannot capture their tendency to branch and to bond to one another in different ways. See also Genetic code Sequence motif External links Information on genome ...

Skin

... to heal itself. Skin sagging is caused by the fall in elasticity. Skin also receives less blood flow and lower gland activity. In medicine , the branch concerned with the skin is called dermatology . The skin is subject to constant attack from without, and so can be afflicted by numerous ailments, ...

Sociobiology

... Sociobiology is a branch of biology and also sociology that attempts to throw light upon behavior in both human and non-human societies in terms of evolutionary ...

Starch

... is not, however, simply a linear polysaccharide chain, since occasionally, two glucose units are joined to one in an alpha-1,6 linkage, forming a branch point. Structurally, the starch forms clusters of linear polymers, where the alpha-1,4 linked chains form linear columns of glucose units branching ...

Taxonomy

... folksonomies by dubbing them fauxonomies . In recent years taxonomic classification has gained support from molecular systematics , a branch of bioinformatics that employs the method of gene sequencing to construct phylogenetic trees . See also systematics scientific ...

Virus

... Hans R. (1996). 41. Structure and Classification of Viruses in Medical Microbiology 4th ed. Samuel Baron ed. The University of Texas Medical branch at Galveston. ISBN 0963117211 ...
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