... For other articles about other subjects named brain
For information about the human brain
in specific, please see its article.
In the ...
... , non-Hodgkin's lymphoma , multiple myeloma , brain
tumor , breast cancer , cervical cancer , ... , breast cancer, soft-tissue sarcoma , brain
tumors ) due to mutations of p53
Turcot syndrome ( brain
tumors and colonic polyposis)
... the light is detected and transmitted to the brain
via the optic nerve . The eye is typically ... developed, vertebrate eyes grow outward from brain
cells during embryonic development, while ... That is, when looking at a nearby object, the brain
automatically increases the refraction index of ...
... , that there is a part (or process) in the brain
whose purpose is to be "you". The homunculus is ... on the retinas in the eyes and something in the brain
looks at these as if they are the screen. The ... has been done is to place a little person in the brain
behind the cortex. In the theory of vision the ...
... for manipulating objects, and a highly developed brain
and consequent capacity for abstract reasoning ... of important trends :
expansion of the brain
cavity and brain
itself, which is typically 1,400 cm³ in ...
5 Signal transduction
6 The brain
7 Diseases and syndromes ... medical assistance is essential, as damage (to brain
and other tissues) and even death will result ... of all cells in a typical human body.
Though other cells can use ...
... believed that the number of neurons in the adult brain
(roughly 10 11 ) did not increase significantly ... in the ear record the sound and send it to the brain
where it activates neurons that control the man's ... cooperativity among coactive afferents." brain
Res. 1978 Nov 24;157(2):277-93. PMID 719524
Magnetic resonance imaging
... used to distinguish pathologic tissue (such as a brain
tumor ) from normal tissue. One of the advantages ... currently the most sensitive way to evaluate the brain
for changes of multiple sclerosis .
The ... tissues. Following an ischemic stroke , brain
cells die, trapping water molecules inside them ...
... to voluntary and autonomic signals from the brain
. Deep muscles, superficial muscles, muscles of ... posture often are controlled from nuclei in the brain
stem and basal ganglia .
... any of the other senses.
Several areas in the brain
coordinate movement and position with the ...
... nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain
and spinal cord . The PNS consists of all ... Annelid worms and tunicates have a primitive brain
called a ganglionic mass, which is a bundle of ... development among all chordates , the tunicate brain
is believed to resemble the evolutionary ...
In vertebrates , they are found in the brain
, the spinal cord and in the nerves and ... and internal structure
7 Neurons of the brain
8 See also
9 External links
... that accumulates with age).
Neurons of the brain
The nematode worm ( Caenorhabditis elegans ) ...
... The biological study of the human brain
is an interdisciplinary field which involves ... between cellular and molecular biology of the brain
and of any other organ. However, there are so ... fields include:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
... a class of antidepressants . They act within the brain
to increase the amount of the neurotransmitter , ... , Aropax ® )
How they work
In the brain
, information is passed between two neurons ... barrier , and therefore won't have an effect on brain
functions. Second, pure serotonin would turn on ...
... epithelium , the retina , liver and even the brain
are all said to contain stem cells.
Adipose ... cancerous tumors . With traditional techniques brain
cancer is almost impossible to treat because it ... cells differentiate to form specific types of brain
cells. This could lead to new treatments and ...
... of all its details; most of them specialize on certain parts, such as the brain
or viscera, contenting themselves with a good working knowledge of the ... system
Colon or large intestine
... . Practitioners of biological psychology may use their knowledge of the brain
, from neurotransmitters to the cerebral cortex to treat their ... them to understand the way that mental processes are instantiated in the brain
. They recognize that treating the organic problem may be accomplished by ...
... no-carbohydrate diet. These include reduced athletic performance, possible brain
damage, and nephrotoxicity . The brain
can only utilize carbohydrates for energy, and protein may not supply ...
Computed axial tomography
... they shared a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1979 ( See also history of brain
imaging ). The first scanner took several hours to acquire the raw data ... planes.
Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures
... Down syndrome are usually small and underweight. The cerebellum and brain
stem are unusually small, as is the superior temporal gyrus . ... neuronal degeneration . Oxidative damage to neurons results in rapid brain
aging similar to that of Alzheimer's disease .
Another chromosome 21 ...
... Children whose craniums fuse too early may suffer deformities and brain
damage, as the skull does not expand properly to accommodate the growing brain
- a condition known as craniostenosis .
Amphiarthroses are ...
... The limbic system is a group of brain
structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression , ... of limbic system.)
The limbic system is among the oldest parts of the brain
in evolutionary terms: it can be found in fish , amphibians , reptiles ...
... studies he made by vivisection . He also tried to study the anatomy of a brain
but his conclusion that brain
is a gland have been proved incorrect. He was also the first to discover ...
... function in the normally working brain.
The physiology of memory
areas such as the hippocampus , the amygdala or the mammillary bodies ... memory, and its counterpart learning, as soley dependant on specific brain
regions. Learning and memory are attributed to changes in neuronal ...
... throughout the central nervous system, others are only used in certain brain
regions by particular classes of nerve cells. Serotonin is generally ... Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: The Neurotransmitter Collection
Endogenous Neuroactive Extracellular Signal ...
... result in a blockage or poor blood supply to other organs, e.g. the brain
or the heart itself, indirectly therefore causing angina, heart failure, brain
disfunctioning, CVAs etc..
An excess of carbohydrates, especially ...
... especially the liver , which appears never to rest in this respect. The brain
also must be a source of heat, since its temperature is higher than that ... metabolism tells first on the central nervous system, especially the brain
and those parts concerned in consciousness. Both heart-beat and ...
... dose and regularity of use, can cause acute respiratory failure or death and with chronic use can cause severe health problems, such as liver and brain
Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized, and often their ...
... studies on mouse embryos lacking PS receptors conducted by Ming O. Li and colleagues  , un-ingested cells undergoing apoptosis accumulated in the brain
and lungs, leading to neonatal lethality. These studies show how critical is the role of PS receptor (PSR) in the development of complex organisms ...
... - Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell.
Nervous tissue - cells forming the brain
, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system
Examples of tissue in other multicellular organisms are vascular tissue in plants , such as ...
... to dread and immobilized panic. Consciousness can be altered, or even lost, in extreme cases, leading to coma and/or seizures or even death and brain
damage. Experienced diabetics can often recognise the symptoms early on - all diabetics should always carry something sugary to eat or drink as these ...
... Nations drug control system (Transnational Institute)
Dutch Jellinek clinic Shows the micro biological effect of several kinds of drugs on brain
cells, using flash animations.
The Vaults of Erowid Reliable, non-judgmental information about psychoactive plants and chemicals and related ...
... recording either the currents (voltage-clamp) or the voltage (current-clamp) across the membrane. This technique is widely used when recording from brain
slices or when performing "in-vivo" recording from live animals.
2. Extracellular recording. In this technique an electrode is placed on the ...
... glucose than other tissues.
Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal wall . Some of this glucose goes directly to fuel brain
cells , while the rest makes its way to the liver and muscles , where it is stored as glycogen ("animal starch"), and to fat cells , where it ...
... , in which liver failure occurs over days to weeks. Liver allografts for transplant usually come from non-living donors who have died from fatal brain
injury. Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person's liver is removed and used to replace the entire ...
... sequence, the neural plate forms the neural tube which then forms the CNS ( central nervous system ), comprised by the spinal cord and the brain
. Masses of tissue called the neural crest separate from the neural tube and form the cord's sensory neurons .
... The neural tube is the embryonal structure that gives rise to the brain
and spinal cord . In gestation , the human neural tube gives rise to three vesicles: the rhomboencephalon , the mesencephalon and the ...
... to emotional memory . This is possibly due to the olfactory system's close anatomical ties to the limbic system and hippocampus , areas of the brain
that have long been known to be involved in emotion and place memory, respectively.
To detect pheromones many vertebrates have an auxiliary ...
... disease (CJD), Chronic Wasting Disease , and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). These diseases affect the structure of brain
tissue and are all fatal and untreatable.
1 Prusiner's Prion Hypothesis
2 Useful Prions ...
... is sometimes called an immunological synapse .
M.F. Bear, B.W. Conners, and M.A. Paradiso. 2001. Neuroscience: Exploring the brain
. Baltimore: Lippincott. ISBN 0781739446
Eric Kandel, James Schwartz, and Thomas Jessel. 2000. Principles of Neural Science . 4th ed. ...
Unsolved problems in biology
... the origin of antibody diversity ? What leads to the complexity of the immune system ? What is the relationship between the immune system and the brain
Humanity : Why are there drastic changes in hominid morphology ? Why are there giant hominid skeletons and very small hominid skeletons? ...