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Bone in Biological Definition

Bone

... For other uses of the word "bone", see bone (disambiguation) . Gray's ... human femur , a typically recognized bone. bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue ... 1 General overview 2 Forms and structure of bone 3 Cells ...

Cancer

... hemoptysis , hepatomegaly (enlarged liver ), bone pain, fracture of affected bones and ... tract or glands . Leukemia starts in the bone marrow stem cells . Lymphoma is a cancer ... . Sarcoma begins in the connective tissue of bone or muscle . Teratoma begins within germ ...

Joint

... are slightly moveable joints where the two bone surfaces at the joint - both covered in hyalin ... the radius and the ulna ). This is where one bone rotates about another. Condyloid (ellipsoid) ... with an odd shape (e.g. an ellipse ), and one bone is concave, the other convex. Some ...

Nutrition

... the regulation of cholestorol, and maintenance of bone density. (See medical abstract , and references ... e.g. muscle function, immune protection, bone density and strength Repair and development of ... et al "High dietary phytoestrogen intake and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women."Journal ...

Stem cell

... some types of cells: e.g. blood cells , or bone cells . Stem cells are also categorized ... that can transform into several different forms. bone marrow stromal stem cells are known to be able ... to Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, except that it is possible to isolate ...

Anatomy

... Tongue Uterus Bones in the human skeleton : Collar bone (clavicle) Thigh bone (femur) Humerus Mandible Patella Radius Skull ...

Pigment

... Urea Painting pigments Alizarin (Alizarin Crimson ) bone black (also known as bone char ) Cadmium pigments (Cadmium Green , Cadmium Red , Cadmium Yellow ...

Anabolism

... increase in body size, a process that involves synthesis of complex molecules. Examples of anabolic processes include growth and mineralization of bone and increase of muscle mass. Catabolic processes involve "breaking down" organs and tissues. These processes involve "dismantling" of structural ...

B cell

... which is an organ unique to birds, where B cells mature. It does not (as commonly assumed among immunologists researching mammals) stand for bone marrow , where B cells are produced in all other vertebrates. The human body makes hundreds of different types of B cells, and each type has a ...

Biomechanics

... effects of elevated blood pressure on the mechanics of the arterial wall, the behavior of cardiomyocytes within a heart with a cardiac infarct, and bone growth in response to exercise have been widely regarded as instances in which living tissue is remodeling as a direct consequence of applied loads. ...

Blood

... uniquely adapted to the architecture of the blood vessels. Physiology of blood Production and degradation Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow ; the process is termed hematopoiesis . The proteinaceous component is produced overwhelmingly in the liver , while hormones are produced by ...

Carnivore

... primarily on a diet consisting only of meat. They may consume other products presented to them, especially animal products like cheese and bone marrow , or sweet sugary substances like honey and syrup , but do not need to consume these on a regular basis. True carnivores lack the ...

Cartilage

... Hyaline cartilage is found lining bones in joints (articular cartilage) . It is also present inside bones, serving as a center of ossification or bone growth. Elastic Cartilage Elastic cartilage (also called yellow cartilage) is found in the pinna of the ear and several tubes, such as the ...

Anabolism

... increase in body size, a process that involves synthesis of complex molecules. Examples of anabolic processes include growth and mineralization of bone and increase of muscle mass. Catabolic processes involve "breaking down" organs and tissues. These processes involve "dismantling" of structural ...

Chromosome

... characteristics are present but underdeveloped. People with Turner syndrome often have a short stature, low hairline, abnormal eye features and bone development and a "caved-in" appearance to the chest. XYY syndrome Triple-X syndrome You can find a detailed graphical display of all ...

Colchicine

... gastro-intestinal upset and neutropenia . Starting the drug early during an attack of gout can exacerbate the symptoms. High doses can also damage bone marrow and lead to anemia . It's not used in the treatment of cancer , as the dose required would lead to intolerable side-effects. Toxicity ...

Collagen

... of the human body. It is present in scar tissue , the end product when tissue heals by repair. It is found in tendons and the organic part of bone . Type II collagen - Articular cartilage Type III collagen - This is the collagen of granulation tissue , and is produced quickly by young ...

Computed axial tomography

... to on a scale from −1024 to +3071 on the Hounsfield scale . Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU) while air is −1000 HU, bone is typically +400 HU or greater and metallic implants are usually +1000 HU. Improvements in CT technology have meant that the overall radiation ...

Heterozygote

... molecules usually have no effect and the person is an asymptomatic carrier . If the proteins are structural, such as those that comprise skin or bone matrix, a mixture of normal or abnormal products usually produces abnormal skin or bone, and the resulting abnormality is termed a dominant trait or ...

Immune system

... pathogen. The adaptive immune system is based on immune cells called leukocytes (or white blood cells) that are produced by stem cells in the bone marrow . In many species, including mammals , the adaptive immune system can be divided into two major sections: The humoral immune system , ...

Immunology

... physicians characterised organs that would later prove to be part of the immune system. The key organs of the immune system are thymus , spleen , bone marrow , lymph vessels , lymph nodes and secondary lymphatic tissues such as tonsils and adenoids ) and skin . The major organs, the thymus ...

Liver

... , and copper . In the first trimester fetus , the liver is the main site of red blood cell production. By the 42nd week of gestation, the bone marrow has almost completely taken over that task. Producing an artifical organ or device capable of emulating most functions of the liver is ...

Muscle

... recommended as a means of improving motor skills , fitness and muscle strength. Exercise has several effects upon muscles, connective tissue and bone , and the nerves that stimulate the muscles. Disease Symptoms of muscle disease may include weakness or spasticity /rigidity, myoclonus ...

Oncogene

... creation of a hybrid protein , through a chromosomal aberration during cell division . A distinct aberration in a dividing stem cell in the bone marrow leads to adult leukemia An increase in protein concentration, caused by an increase of protein expression (through misregulation) ...

Protein

... Excess protein can cause problems as well, such as causing the immune system to overreact, liver dysfunction from increased toxic residues, possibly bone loss due to increased acidity in the blood, foundering (foot problems) in horses, and can also be linked to obesity. Proteins can often figure in ...

Skin

... fibres and resists stretching. The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. It is made up of loose connective tissue and elastin. The main cell types are ...

T cell

... development 2 See also 3 Sources 4 External links T cell development Throughout life, a source of all lymphocytes remains bone marrow. Progeny of multipotential lymphoid stem cells (CFU-L) that are destined to become T cells, move into thymus, where they are called ...
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