... solution, such as a cell lysate, growth medium or blood
serum. The molecule of interest will have a well ... free extracts and antibody purification from blood
Possibly the most common use of ... is the affinity purification of antibodies from blood
serum. If serum is known to contain antibodies ...
... for albumen , or egg white.
Albumin is a blood
plasma protein that is produced in the liver ... range of albumin concentrations in human blood
is 3.5 to 5.0 g/dL, and albumin normally ... of plasma protein; all other proteins present in blood
plasma are referred to collectively as globulin ....
... plant. Codominance is also apparent in human blood
types . A gene containing the codominant pure blood
type alleles "AA" and "BB" would result in a blood
type of "AB".
A wild type allele is an allele ...
... function as antibodies. They are found in the blood
and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions . ... and is approximately equally distributed in blood
and in tissue liquids. It is important that this ... about 15 to 20% of immunoglobulins in the blood
although it is primarily secreted across the ...
... loads. For example, the effects of elevated blood
pressure on the mechanics of the arterial wall, ... of Circulation
Under most circumstances, blood
flow can be modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations . Whole blood
can often be assumed to be an incompressible ...
... Red blood
cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood
and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body
is a circulating tissue composed of fluid ...
Full blood count
... A full blood
count ( FBC ) or complete blood
count ( CBC ) is a test requested by a doctor ... showTocToggle("show","hide")
1 Automated blood
... homeostatic body functions such as heartbeat, blood
pressure, fluid balance and body temperature. ... impact itself. Stroke , caused by blockage of blood
vessels in the brain, is another major cause of ... resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood
flow in the brain, but the activity of neurons is ...
... people. Examples include: bladder carcinoma , blood
(and bone marrow ) - hematological ... cancer can be detected through fecal occult blood
testing and colonoscopy , which reduces both ... along with annual prostate specific antigen blood
Screening for cancer is controversial ...
... varying or persistent hyperglycemia (elevated blood
sugar levels), especially after eating. All ... understanding and participation is vital as blood
glucose levels change continuously, while successfully keeping blood
sugar within normal limits has been compellingly ...
... for removing waste such as urea from the blood
when the kidneys are incapable of this, i.e. ... dialysis .
In hemodialysis , the patient's blood
is passed through a tube into a machine that filters out waste products. The cleansed blood
is then returned to the body.
In peritoneal ...
... products, complements, damaged cells and white blood
cell fragments; chemotaxis is followed by ... on immune cells called leukocytes (or white blood
cells) that are produced by stem cells in the ... and viruses in the body liquids (such as blood
). Its primary means of action are proteins ...
... other medications are inadequate in controlling blood
Insulin has the empirical ... and metabolic level
4 Regulatory action on blood
5 Signal transduction
6 The ... C-peptide . This polypeptide is released into the blood
in equal amounts to the insulin protein. Since ...
... filter wastes (especially urea ) from the blood
and excrete them, along with water , as urine ... capsule . Each glomerulus is supplied with blood
by an afferent (in-coming) arteriole . The ... the glomerulus have pores allowing filtration. blood
pressure provides the force ...
1.2 Functional anatomy
1.3 Fetal blood
3 Diseases of ... kidney .
The liver is supplied by two major blood
vessels: the hepatic artery and the portal ... the celiac trunk . The portal vein brings venous blood
from the digestive tract, so that the liver can ...
... oxygen from air with carbon dioxide from blood
. The process in which this happens is called " ... it is carried by hemoglobin .
The deoxygenated blood
from the heart reaches the lungs via the ... and carbon-dioxide are traded with cross-flowing blood
capillaries by diffusion, a process of ...
... Red blood
cell infected with P.vivax
Malaria ( ... then turn into merozoites which then enter red blood
cells . There they multiply further, periodically breaking out of the red blood
cells. The classical description of waves of ...
... such as the intestines , throat and blood
The differences in ... which it controls erection of body hair) to the blood
vessels and digestive tract (in which it ... include testing creatine kinase levels in the blood
and electromyography (measuring electrical ...
... supporting human life.
The nephron filters the blood
by several processes concentrating the ... so, eliminates wastes from the body, regulates blood
volume and blood
pressure , regulates the levels of important ...
... would be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the blood
via organs such as the skin and the kidneys; ... occur:
filtration - fluid portion of blood
(plasma) is filtered from nephron (functional ... of the viscous glomerular filtrate is returned to blood
vessels which surround the convoluted tubules.
... A blood
type is a description an individual's characteristics of red blood
cells due to substances ( carbohydrates and ... two most important classifications to describe blood
types in humans are ABO and Rh factor . There ...
plasma is a component of blood
. It is the liquid in which blood
cells are suspended. ...
... underlying basement membrane . It contains no blood
vessels , and is nourished by diffusion from the ... and takes place within about 30 days.
capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and ... and contains a number of structures including blood
vessels, nerves, hair follicles, smooth muscle ...
2 Sources of stem cells
2.1 Cord blood
2.2 Adult stem cells
2.3 ... own stem cells
4 Embryonic ... cells can only become some types of cells: e.g. blood
cells , or bone cells .
Stem cells are also ...
... of the body, although the circulation of the blood
tends to bring about a mean temperature of the ... temperature is higher than that of the arterial blood
with which it is supplied. Also a certain amount ... vascular areas leads to a larger flow of blood
through the skin, and so tends to cool the body, ...
... become entangled, reducing or interrupting the blood
supply to the developing fetus. Monochorionic ... one placenta, usually also share the placental blood
supply. In rare cases, blood
passes disproportionately from one twin to the ...
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
... to observe and describe muscle fibres, bacteria , spermatozoa and blood
flow in capillaries (small blood
His name at birth was Thonis Philipszoon . His letters were ...
... any one time in the human body millions of B cells are circulating in the blood
and lymph, but are not producing antibodies.
There are two types of B ...
Humoral immunity (the creation of antibodies that circulate in blood
plasma and lymph ) involves B cell activation . Cell activation can be ...
... funeral for him. In preparation for this funeral, they removed all the blood
and excreta from his body with their bare hands. Most of the women in his ... tract . The patient may also be going into shock (has a systolic blood
pressure of less than 90 mm Hg or a rapid weak pulse). Finally, that ...
... however remote a degree to give to the more suitable races or strains of blood
a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable than they ... the 1970s , it has reduced the ratio of children born with the hereditary blood
disease from 1 out of every 158 births to almost zero.
In modern ...
... of body temperature. This is mainly done by the skin.
The regulation of blood
glucose level. This is mainly done by the liver and the insulin secreted ... features body fluids in multicellular animals. The body fluids include blood
plasma , tissue fluid and intracellular fluid . The maintenance of a ...
... more often than women. For example, genes that control the clotting of blood
reside on the X chromosome. Women have a blood-clotting gene on each X ... blood-clotting gene since there is no gene on the Y chromosome to control blood
clotting. As a result, men will suffer from hemophilia more often than ...
... many structures, including the skeleton , lungs , eyes , heart and blood
vessels . It is named for the French pediatrician Antoine Marfan , ... cause leakage of the mitral or aortic valves that control the flow of blood
through the heart. This may produce shortness of breath, an irregular ...
Magnetic resonance imaging
... 3D time-of-flight sequences), where the only signal on an image is due to blood
which has recently moved into that plane.
Magnetic resonance ... activity cause changes in the MR signal via a mechanism called the BOLD ( blood
oxygen level-dependent) effect. Increased neural activity causes an ...
... or stress, and is responsible for the increase of one's heartbeat and blood
pressure, among other physiological changes, along with the sense of ... constriction of the pupil, the slowing of the heart, the dilation of the blood
vessels, and the stimulation of the digestive and geniturinary systems.
Polymerase chain reaction
... identify a person by comparing his or her DNA with a given sample, e.g., blood
from a crime scene can be genetically compared to blood
from a suspect. The sample may contain only a tiny amount of DNA, obtained ...
... signals are produced by endocrine cells and travel through the blood
to reach all parts of the body.
Paracrine signals target only cells ... after a stroke . NO serves three main functions:
Relaxation of blood
Regulation of exocytosis of neurotransmitters .
... Staphylococcus aureus ) was first detected in Britain in 1961 and is now "quite common" in hospitals. MRSA was responsible for 37% of fatal cases of blood
poisoning in the UK in 1999, up from 4% in 1991. Half of all S. aureus infections in the US are resistant to penicillin, methicillin, tetracycline ...
In the adult organism, the number of cells within an organ or tissue has to be constant within a certain range. blood
and skin cells, for instance, are constantly renewed by their respective progenitor cells; but proliferation has to be compensated by cell death. ...
... - Lines, covers, protects, absorbs and secretes.
Connective tissue - As the name suggests, connective tissue holds everything together. blood
is considered a connective tissue.
Muscle tissue - Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size ...