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Biochemical in Biological Definition

Apoptosis

... 2 Apoptotic process 2.1 Morphology 2.2 biochemical signals for safe disposal 2.3 Intrinsic and extrinsic inducers 2.4 biochemical execution 3 Implication and role of ... bodies , which are then phagocytosed. biochemical signals for safe disposal The dying cells that ...

Signal transduction

... signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried ... of the signal that leads to defined biochemical reactions within the target cell. The reactions ... hormones and their receptors can invoke the same biochemical pathway. Different tissue types can answer ...

Antibody

... 4.1 The humoral immune response 5 Medical applications 6 biochemical applications 7 See also 8 References 9 External links ... are undergoing extensive clinical trials for use in practice. biochemical applications In biochemistry , antibodies are used for immunological ...

Enzyme

... food compounds to provide energy, for instance. Enzymes may speed up biochemical reactions by a factor of one thousand times or more. They also provide a ... model of enzyme catalysis The lecture "Quantum Theory of some biochemical Reactions", presented to the IV International Biophysical Congress ...

Photosynthesis

... Photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plants , algae , and some bacteria harness the ... The ATP and NADPH produced by photosynthesis drive a variety of other biochemical processes. In plants, the most notable is the Calvin cycle , by which ...

Isozyme

... variants of the same enzyme . Unless they are identical in terms of their biochemical properties, for example their substrates and enzyme kinetics , they may be distinguished by a biochemical assay . However, such differences are usually subtle (particularly between ...

Metabolism

... (metabolismos), the Greek word for "change"), is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells . ... steps, also called metabolic pathways . The total metabolism are all biochemical processes of an organism. The cell metabolism includes all chemical ...

Photosynthesis

... Photosynthesis is a biochemical process in which plants , algae , and some bacteria harness the ... The ATP and NADPH produced by photosynthesis drive a variety of other biochemical processes. In plants, the most notable is the Calvin cycle , by which ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... a molecular mass of 507.184 u . The phosphoryl groups starting with that on AMP are referred to as the alpha, beta, and gamma phosphates. The biochemical name for ATP is 9--D-ribofuranosyladenine-5'-triphosphate. Synthesis ATP can be produced by various cellular processes, most typically in ...

Affinity chromatography

... Affinity chromatography is a biochemical separation method that combines size fractionation capability of gel permeation chromatography with the ability to design a stationary phase that ...

Alternative splicing

... process of a pre-mRNA can lead to different ripe mRNA molecules and therefore to different proteins. Also viruses have adapted to this biochemical process when using the protein biosynthesis apparatus. When the pre-mRNA has been transcribed from the DNA , it includes several introns and ...

Amino acid

... acids 4.1 Structures 4.2 Chemical properties 5 Uses of substances derived from amino acids Overview Amino acids are biochemical building blocks. They form short polymer chains called peptides or polypeptides which in turn form structures called proteins . Twenty ...

Biology

... Arabidopsis thaliana . Physiology of organisms Main articles: Physiology , Anatomy Physiology studies the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms, by attempting to understand how all the structures function as a whole. It has traditionally been divided into ...

Biological membrane

... of which function as channels . Such membranes typically define enclosed spaces or compartments in which cells may maintain a chemical or biochemical environment that differs from the outside. For example, the membrane around peroxisomes shields the rest of the cell from peroxides , and the ...

Biomechanics

... offer in the way of explaining the active and passive properties of living tissues. For example, the binding of myosin to actin is based on the biochemical reaction, where C a 2 + and ATP move the troponin and tropomyosin to allow for the crossbridges to bind to the activation sites on the ...

Calvin cycle

... The Calvin cycle (also known as Calvin-Benson cycle ) is a series of biochemical reactions taking place in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms . It was discovered by Melvin Calvin and Andy Benson at the ...

Botany

... motivation of botany As with other life forms in biology, plant life can be studied at a variety of levels, from the molecular , genetic and biochemical level through to organelles , cells , tissues , organs and the biodiversity of whole plants. At the top end of this scale, plants can be ...

Capacitation

... is the final step in the maturation of mammalian spermatozoa and is required to render them competent to fertilize an oocyte . This step is a biochemical event; the sperm move normally and look mature prior to capacitation. In vivo this final step typically occurs after ejaculation , in the female ...

Carbohydrate

... Macromolecules Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Pentose phosphate pathway External links IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN): Carbohydrate Nomenclature Carbohydrates detailed Carbohydrates Overview Carbohydrates and Glycosylation - The ...

Cladistics

... 4 See also 5 External links Introduction Based on a wide variety of information, which includes genetic analysis, biochemical analysis, and analysis of morphology , treelike relationship-diagrams called "cladograms" are drawn up to show different possibilities. A ...

Ecological genetics

... result, funding was diverted towards molecular genetics . Improved understanding of molecular genetics however, allowed the development of improved biochemical techniques during the 1980s and 1990s which in turn allowed data on natural populations to be derived. See also antibiotic resistance ...

Warm-blooded

... to radiate more heat from the skin), panting or sweating (to increase heat loss through evaporation ). Warm-blooded versus cold-blooded biochemical processes are heat dependent. The rule of thumb is that they go faster when they are warm and slower when they are cold. The advantage of being warm ...

Evolutionary developmental biology

... may arise through several methods including gene duplication and gene regulation. Gene duplication allows fixation of a particular cellular or biochemical function at one locus , leaving the duplicated locus free to fulfill a new function. In contrast, changes in gene regulation , is a "second-order" ...

Flavin

... name of a commune in the Aveyron dpartement , in France Riboflavin Flavin is a tricyclic heteronuclear organic ring whose biochemical source is the vitamin riboflavin . The flavin moiety is often conjugated with an adenosine diphosphate to form flavin adenine dinucleotide ( ...

Flavin

... name of a commune in the Aveyron dpartement , in France Riboflavin Flavin is a tricyclic heteronuclear organic ring whose biochemical source is the vitamin riboflavin . The flavin moiety is often conjugated with an adenosine diphosphate to form flavin adenine dinucleotide ( ...

Fungus

... The arrangement of the various fungal taxa has undergone substantial changes in the last several decades, especially as techniques for comparing biochemical characteristics (such as ribosomal RNA and DNA) have become increasingly more sophisticated. The phylogeny presented here is after Bruns et al. ...

Gene regulatory network

... also Operon Systems biology Bibliography James M. Bower, Hamid Bolouri (editors), (2001) Computational Modeling of Genetic and biochemical Networks Computational Molecular Biology Series, MIT Press, ISBN 0262024810 S. A. Kauffman, "Metabolic stability and epigenesis in randomly ...

Glucose

... as fructose , is so widely used. Glucose can form from formaldehyde under abiotic conditions, so it may well have been available to primitive biochemical systems. Probably more important to advanced life is the low tendency of glucose, by comparison to other hexose sugars, to nonspecifically react ...

Kinesiology

... of kinesiology encompasses the study of the biological components of human movement including the anatomical , physiological , neurological , biochemical , and biomechanical . Also studied is the relationship between the quality of human movement and the overall health of the human organism . ...

Long-term potentiation

... long term potentiation". J Biol Chem 272 (31), 19103-6. PMID 9235897 ^ Sweatt JD (2001) "The neuronal MAP kinase cascade: a biochemical signal integration system subserving synaptic plasticity and memory". J Neurochem 76 (1), 1-10. PMID 11145972 ^ PMID 10545144 ...

Mathematical biology

... 1975 (reprinted 1993). ISBN 0898710170 S.I. Rubinow, Introduction to mathematical biology . John Wiley, 1975. ISBN 0471744468 A. Goldbeter, biochemical oscillations and cellular rhythms . C.U.P., 1996. ISBN 0521599466 E. Renshaw, Modelling biological populations in space and time . C.U.P., 1991. ...

Mycology

... Mycology is the study of fungi , their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy , and their use to humans as a source for medicinals (see penicillin ) and food ( beer , wine , cheese , edible ...

Neurotransmitter

... presynaptic neuron to exert an effect on the postsynaptic neuron Externally administered, it must mimic the endogenously released substance A biochemical mechanism for inactivation must be present Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Types of neurotransmitters 2 Mechanism of ...

Nucleoside

... , which are the molecular building blocks of DNA and RNA . Nucleoside triphosphates are the energy rich end products of the majority of biochemical energy releasing pathways. See also Nucleobase Nucleotide DNA RNA Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ...

Origin of life

... to protocells, cells, and metabolism. Some of these postulate early appearance of nucleic acids (" genes -first"), whereas the evolution of biochemical reactions and pathways is regarded as moving force of early evolution (" metabolism -first"). Recently, trends are emerging to create hybrid models ...

Oxidative phosphorylation

... Oxidative phosphorylation is a biochemical process in cells . It is the final metabolic pathway of cellular respiration , after glycolysis and the citric acid cycle . The process ...

Physiology

... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of ...

Prion

... the [NU+] element. Molecular Properties of Prions A great deal of our knowledge of how prions work at a molecular level comes from detailed biochemical analysis of yeast prion proteins. A typical yeast prion proteins contain a region ( protein domain ) with many repeats of the amino acids ...

Protein biosynthesis

... proteins undergo post-translational modification . This is may include the formation of disulfide bridges or attachment of any of a number of biochemical functional groups , such as acetate , phosphate , various lipids and carbohydrates . Enzymes may also remove one or more amino acids from the ...

Protein

... chemical), a denatured protein could be converted to native form. The issue of how proteins arrive at their native state is an important area of biochemical study, called the study of protein folding . Through genetic engineering , researchers can alter the sequence and hence the structure, ...
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