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Bases in Biological Definition

Genetic code

... sugar and one of the 4 nitrogenous nucleotide bases grouped into 2 categories, purine and pyrimidine . The purine bases adenine ( A ) and guanine ( G ) are larger and consist of two aromatic rings . The pyrimidine bases cytosine ( C ) and thymine ( T ) are smaller ...

DNA

... four interchangeable "building blocks", called " bases ", which can be abbreviated A , T , C , and G ... to describe the sequence; The order of the bases along the length of the DNA is what it's all ... This way, each split half of the strand plus the bases it collects from the soup will ideally end up as ...

Genetic code

... sugar and one of the 4 nitrogenous nucleotide bases grouped into 2 categories, purine and pyrimidine . The purine bases adenine ( A ) and guanine ( G ) are larger and consist of two aromatic rings . The pyrimidine bases cytosine ( C ) and thymine ( T ) are smaller ...

Leaf

... forms 3 Leaf shapes 4 Leaf margins 5 Leaf tips 6 Leaf bases 7 Hairiness 8 Leaf surfaces 9 Adaptations 10 See Also ... truncate: ending abruptly with a flat end, that looks cut off. Leaf bases acuminate: coming to a sharp, narrow, prolonged point. acute: ...

Purine

... also refers to substituted purines and their tautomers . Two of the bases in nucleic acids , adenine and guanine , are purines. In DNA , these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary pyrimidines thymine ...

Restriction enzyme

... of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases . The chemical bonds that the enzymes cleave can be reformed by other ... at variable distances from these recognition sites, and can be hundreds of bases away. In type II systems, the restriction enzyme is independent of its ...

Y chromosome

... Seattle, discovered that many of the sequences of chemical units -- called bases or base pairs -- that carry genetic information on the Y chromosome are ... of the Y chromosomes, the palindromes are not "junk" DNA; these strings of bases contain functioning genes important for male fertility. Most of the ...

Alcohol

... the O-H group. With a pK a of around 16-19 they are generally slightly weaker acids than water , but they are still able to react with strong bases such as sodium hydride or reactive metals such as sodium . The salts that result are called alkoxides , with the general formula R O - M + ...

Amine

... -CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2 1.3·10 -10 M Butylamine CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2 0.15·10 -10 M Like ammonia, amines act as bases and are reasonably strong (see table for examples of conjugate acid K a values). The nitrogen atom has a lone electron pair available which can ...

Chromosome

... one of the two X chromosomes is inactive and can be seen under a microscope as Barr bodies . Human chromosome Chromosome Genes bases Determined bases* 1 2968 245,203,898 218,712,898 2 2288 243,315,028 237,043,673 3 2032 199,411,731 ...

Double helix

... as first published by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. They showed that DNA is made up of two complementary, antiparallel strands of the bases Guanine , Adenine , Thymine , and Cytosine , covalently linked through phosphodiester bonds . Each strand forms a helix, and the two helices ...

Gel electrophoresis

... and a cross-linker , producing different sized mesh networks of polyacrylamide . When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases ), the preferred matrix is purified agarose . In both cases, the gel forms a solid but porous matrix that looks and feels like clear jello. ...

Experimental evolution

... . Plant Breeding Reviews 24 , 225-265. S. F. Elena and R. E. Lenski (2003). Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation. Nature Reviews Genetics 4 , 457-469. R. E. Lenski, M. R. Rose, S. C. Simpson, and S. C. Tadler (1991). Long-term experimental ...

Gel electrophoresis

... and a cross-linker , producing different sized mesh networks of polyacrylamide . When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases ), the preferred matrix is purified agarose . In both cases, the gel forms a solid but porous matrix that looks and feels like clear jello. ...

Molecular biology

... of times), or altered in predetermined ways. For example, PCR can be used to introduce restriction enzyme sites, or to mutate (change) particular bases of DNA. PCR can also be used to determine whether a particular DNA fragment is found in a cDNA library . Gel electrophoresis Main article: ...

Molecular evolution

... been made possible by the availability of techniques for gene sequencing , which allow the determination of the exact sequence of nucleotides or bases in either DNA or RNA. At present it is still a long and expensive process to sequence the entire genome of an organism, and this has been done ...

Primer

... than 50 nucleotides (Since DNA is usually double-stranded, its length is measured in base pairs. The length of single-stranded DNA is measured in bases or nucleotides), and they match exactly the beginning and the end of the DNA fragment to be amplified. They anneal (adhere) to the DNA template at ...

Pyrimidine

... Three nucleobases found in nucleic acids , namely cytosine , thymine , and uracil , are pyrimidine derivatives. In DNA and RNA , these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary purines . purine pyrimidine A T G C In RNA , the complement of A is U ...

Semen

... Basic amines such as putrescine , spermine , spermidine and cadaverine are responsible for the smell and flavor of semen. These alkaline bases counteract the acidic environment of the vaginal canal (which is harmful to sperm), and protect DNA inside the sperm from acidic denaturation. ...

Virus

... the nucleocapsid protein) binds directly to the viral genome, for example, in the case of the measles virus, one nucleocapsid protein binds every six bases of RNA to form a helix approximately 1.3 micrometres in length. This complex of protein and nucleic acid is called the nucleocapsid, and, in the ...

Virus evolution

... and Consequences. Landes Bioscience. S.F. Elena and R.E. Lenski (2003). Evolution experiments with microorganisms: the dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation. Nat. Rev. Genet. 4: 457-469. ...

Wobble base pair

... codons (64) by using modified base pairs in the first base of the anti-codon. One important modified base is inosine which can basepair with three bases including uracil , adenine , and cytosine . Another critical base pair is the G-U base pair which allows uracil to base pair with two bases: ...
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