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Bacterial in Biological Definition

Antibiotic

... interesting anti-bacterial effects from various bacterial secretions, the German scientist E. de Freudenreich in 1888 isolated a bacterial secretion and noted its antibacterial properties. ... the mold was secreting something that stopped bacterial growth. He knew that this substance might have ...

Bacterial conjugation

... bacterial conjugation is the often regarded as the bacterial equivalent of sexual reproduction or mating ; ... (a plasmid that can integrate itself into the bacterial chromosome by genetic recombination ) of about ...

Bacterium

... (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another in solution, this can include ... (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage) and; bacterial conjugation (the transfer of DNA from ...

Chromosome

... on the chromosome. Chromosomes in bacteria bacterial chromosomes are often circular but sometimes ... have one chromosome, while others have a few. bacterial DNA also exists as plasmids . The distinction ... and necessity are generally taken into account. bacterial chromosomes initiate replication and one origin ...

Endosymbiont

... algae, and several insect species contain bacterial endosymbionts. Many other examples of ... mitochondria and chloroplasts , originated as bacterial endosymbionts. This theory is known as the ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 bacterial obligate endosymbionts in marine oligochaetes ...

Endosymbiont

... algae, and several insect species contain bacterial endosymbionts. Many other examples of ... mitochondria and chloroplasts , originated as bacterial endosymbionts. This theory is known as the ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 bacterial obligate endosymbionts in marine oligochaetes ...

Bacterium

... (the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another in solution, this can include ... (the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage) and; bacterial conjugation (the transfer of DNA from ...

Flagellum

... structures, found in each of the three domains. bacterial flagella are helical filaments that rotate like ... Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 bacterial flagellum 2 Archaeal flagellum 3 ... 4 See also 5 External links bacterial flagellum The filament is composed of the ...

Growth curve

... Figure 1: A "bi-phasic" bacterial growth curve. A growth curve in biology ... 1 Examples 1.1 bacterial cell growth 1.2 Cancer cell growth 1.3 The ... 1.4 Exponential growth Examples bacterial cell growth In this example (Figure 1, see Lac ...

Microbiology

... times (the time needed for division of a bacterial cell in two in optimal conditions; ~30 minutes ... , which allowed them to transfer numerous bacterial colonies from their specific locations on one ... beer , vinegar and other substances. bacterial genes have been inserted into other organisms as ...

Molecular biology

... This plasmid can be inserted into either bacterial or animal cells. Introducing DNA into bacterial cells is called transformation , and can be ... of a protein can then be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell. The protein can be tested for ...

Phage

... they are dormant, by adding new functions to the bacterial genome , a phenomenon called lysogenic ... as an alternative to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections—because killing bacteria is what ... Institute in Georgia . The development of bacterial strains that are resistant to multiple drugs has ...

Virus

... them excellent tools for experiments in biology. bacterial viruses have also further simplified the study of bacterial genetics and have deepened our understanding of ... of the host cell. The capsid of a phage , a bacterial virus, remains on the outside. In contrast, many ...

Full blood count

... will also include: Neutrophil granulocytes - May indicate bacterial infection. Lymphocytes - Higher with some viral infections such as ... raised in lymphocytic leukaemia CLL . Monocytes - May be raised in bacterial infection Eosinophil granulocytes - Increased in parasitic ...

Cell growth

... in eukaryotes than in other organisms. Non-eukaryotic cells such as bacterial cells reproduce by binary fission , a process that includes DNA ... according to the Hardy-Weinberg ratio . Related articles bacterial growth Cancer Developmental biology Stem cell Cell ...

Lambda phage

... of phage λ takes place at a special attachment site in the bacterial genome, called att λ . The sequence of the att site is called ... a Holliday structure and requires both the phage protein int and the bacterial protein IHF ( integration host factor ). Both int and IHF bind to ...

Muscle

... Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Tetanus and botulism are bacterial infections in which bacterial toxins cause increased or decreased muscle tone, respectively. The ...

Plasmid

... of a conjugative plasmid. Figure 4 : Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. 1 Chromosomal DNA . 2 Plasmids . 3 Pilus . It is ... codes for--for example, insulin or even antibiotics. See also bacterial artificial chromosome ...

Alexander Fleming

... on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus . Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were lysing . Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially ...

Ames test

... caused by the agent; therefore, data analysis using control dishes is necessary. Occasionally a tested agent will be toxic enough to simply kill the bacterial culture in which case a "thin lawn" is observed. S-9 In some Ames assays an S-9 mix is added. The S-9 mix contains liver enzymes , ...

Antigen

... antigens are antigens that have been generated within the cell, as a result of normal cell metabolism , or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection . The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex with class I histocompatibility molecules . If cytotoxic CD8 + T ...

Archaea

... metabolism . However, their genetic transcription and translation - the two central processes in molecular biology - do not show the typical bacterial features, but are extremely similar to those of eukaryotes . For instance, archaean translation uses eukaryotic initiation and elongation factors, ...

Biophysics

... & John Kendrew , pioneers of protein crystallography Other notable biophysicists Howard Berg , characterized properties of bacterial chemotaxis Friedrich Dessauer , research on radiation, especially X-rays Walter Friedrich Boris Rajewsky Mikhail Volkenshtein , ...

BLAST

... available, although subsequent algorithms can be even faster. Examples of other questions that researchers use BLAST to answer are Which bacterial species have a protein that is related in lineage to a certain protein whose amino-acid sequence I know? Where does the DNA that I've just ...

Brain

... by psychiatric therapy , by drugs , or by a combination of treatments. Some diseases that affect the brain are caused by germs. Viral or bacterial infection of the meninges, the membrane that covers the brain, can lead to meningitis . Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a deadly disease ...

Cilium

... coordinated while flagella is used when they are relatively sparse and long. The name cilium may also be used to emphasize their differences from bacterial flagella. Cilia are found in all animals, although nematodes and arthropods only have non-motile cilia on some sensory nerve cells. Cilia are ...

Diabetes mellitus

... DKA usually results from omission of insulin, mismanagement of acute gastroenteritis (the "flu"), or an overwhelming new health problem (e.g., bacterial infection , myocardial infarction ). Insulin deficiency switches many aspects of metabolic balance in a catabolic direction. The liver ...

Disulfide bond

... In bacteria Disulfide bonds play an imporant protective role for bacteria as a reversible switch that turns a protein on or off when bacterial cells are exposed to oxidation reactions. Hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 ) in particular can severely damage DNA and kill the bacterium at ...

Ethyl alcohol

... their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi , and many viruses , but is ineffective against bacterial spores . Because of this disinfectant property, alcoholic beverages can be stored for a long time. See also alcohol fuel alcoholic ...

Fermentation

... ethanol and lactic acid is used in place of oxygen . Bacteria generally produce acids. Vinegar ( acetic acid ) is the direct result of bacterial fermentation. In milk, the acid coagulates the casein , producing curds. In pickling, the acid preserves the food from pathogenic and putrefactive ...

Gene therapy

... for a method of easily producing proteins , such as the protein deficient in diabetics — insulin, investigated introducing human genes to bacterial DNA. The modified bacteria then produce the corresponding protein, which can be harvested and injected in people who cannot produce it naturally. ...

Genomics

... most prominent in thermophilic bacteria, where it seems that genes were transferred from Archaea to Eubacteria . It has also been noticed that bacterial genes exist in eukaryotic nuclear genomes and that these genes generally encode mitochondrial and plastid proteins, giving support to the ...

Immune system

... a bacteriophage attempts to infect this bacterium, the viral DNA has not been protected, and gets degraded by the first enzyme. While study of the bacterial immune system provides useful insights into immunology, the remainder of this article will focus on higher organisms' immune systems, particularly ...

Life

... have survived scientific scrutiny. Today, the closest that scientists have come to finding extraterrestrial life is fossil evidence of possible bacterial life on Mars (via the ALH84001 meteorite). Searches for extraterrestrial life are currently focusing on planets and moons believed to possess ...

Max Delbr

... as cellular organisms do. In 1941, he married Mary Bruce, with whom he had four children. In 1942, he and Salvador Luria demonstrated that bacterial resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not adaptive change. For that, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology ...

Microevolution

... (and may culminate in the evolution of new species ). Typically, observable instances of evolution are examples of microevolution; for example, bacterial strains that have become resistant to antibiotics . Because microevolution can be observed directly, both pro-evolution and some anti-evolution ...

Mitochondrion

... for 15 phospholipids). Additionally, the inner membrane is rich in a an unusual phospholipid, cardiolipin , which is usually characteristic of bacterial plasma membranes . The outer mitochondrial membrane contains numerous integral proteins called porins , which contain a relatively large ...

Mitochondrion

... for 15 phospholipids). Additionally, the inner membrane is rich in a an unusual phospholipid, cardiolipin , which is usually characteristic of bacterial plasma membranes . The outer mitochondrial membrane contains numerous integral proteins called porins , which contain a relatively large ...

Molecular genetics

... overexpression mapping, cloning, and sequencing gene expression measuring spatial and temporal regulation cDNAs imprinting bacterial and phage molecular genetics eukaryotic molecular genetics external links Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and ...

Muller's ratchet

... transmitted vertically, without recombination caused by sex . Exclusive vertical transfer occurs when the organism is an endosymbiont , e.g. a bacterial endosymbiont of insects, which is only transmitted to offspring from the mother. Another example is mitochondria and chloroplasts , which are ...
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