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Artificial in Biological Definition

Artificial life

... artificial life , also known as alife or a-life , is the ... Simulation of Living Systems" (otherwise known as artificial Life I) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory ... Nature of the field Although the study of artificial life does have some significant overlap with the ...

Brain

... in medicine 1.3 Brains in philosophy 1.4 artificial brains 1.5 Interfacing brains with machines ... argument towards philosophical skepticism . artificial brains Computer scientists have produced ... structure of neuron connections in the brain. artificial intelligence seeks to replicate brain function ...

Natural selection

... . Natural selection is distinguished from artificial selection by humans . Other mechanisms of ... of thought. In addition, many theories of artificial selection have been proposed to suggest that ... that prevailed in Europe. See also artificial selection directional selection ...

Homunculus

... cortex of a pig . In many Role-playing games , a Homunculus is a artificial creature that can be made by magical means to assist the creator. For ... in their name. Both are blue creatures, blue being the color of artificial creation and illusion, among other things. In the Enix RPG, Valkyrie ...

Human

... used of non-human animals , and could be used of a mythical being , an artificial intelligence , or an extraterrestrial . An important question in ... , Human self-reflection , Mind , Mind-body problem , Dualism , artificial intelligence , Rationalism , Empiricism , Immanuel Kant , David Hume , ...

Life

... Earth, or the possibility of extraterrestrial life , or the concept of artificial life , it becomes clear that the question is fundamentally difficult and ... Europa , which seems to possess oceans of liquid water. See also artificial life biological life cycle origin of life (disambiguation) ...

Astrobiology

... variety of extraterrestrial life . It also includes the concept of artificial life , since any life form that might naturally evolve elsewhere could ... of life on other planets in our solar system . See also artificial life Astrosociobiology Carbon chauvinism Extraterrestrial ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... Reaction of ADP with GTP ADP + GTP ATP + GDP There is talk of using ATP as a power source for nanotechnology and implants. artificial pacemakers could become independent of batteries . See also Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) ATPases ...

Affinity chromatography

... proteins. Essentially proteins are tagged with a known affinity ligand in order to aid their purification. That is to say that the molecule has an artificial trait imposed upon it by genetic modification which allows it to be selected for affinity binding (if the molecule is a protein these are called ...

Reproduction

... (sexually mature after adolescence ) and Northern Gannet (5-6 years), produce few offspring. Others reproduce quickly, but unless raised in an artificial environment, most offspring do not survive to adults . A rabbit (mature after 8 months) produces 10 - 30 offspring per year, a Nile Crocodile ...

Barr body

... be important in chromosome counting: ensuring that random inactivation only takes place when two X-chromosomes are present. The provision of an extra artificial Xic in early embryogenisis can induce inactivation of the single X found in male cells. The roles of Xist and Tsix appear to be antagonistic. ...

Bioinformatics

... , signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand evolutionary processes via the computer simulation of simple (artificial) life forms. Other ...

Biotechnology

... timeline 8000BC Collecting of seeds for replanting. Evidence that Babylonians , Egyptians and Romans used selective breeding ( artificial selection ) practices to improve livestock . 6000BC Brewing beer , fermenting wine , baking bread with help of yeast 4000BC Chinese ...

Blood

... blood of the living. Porphyrias , a group of inherited or acquired disorders , may have been the source of vampire legends. See also artificial blood List of human blood components Blood as food : see black pudding Blood and video game censorship ...

Cartilage

... Bioengineering techniques are being developed to generate new cartilage, using a cellular "scaffolding" material and cultured cells to grow artificial cartilage. See also Biomechanics connective tissue Endochondral ossification Chondroplasty External links ...

Charles Darwin

... Spencer's Social Darwinism (against welfare and social services, encouraging a social "survival of the fittest") and Galton's eugenics (to apply artificial selection procedures to society in order to encourage the "fit" to breed and discourage the "unfit" from breeding) were two interpretations of what ...

Bioinformatics

... , signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks ) to both analyze and visualize the complex connections of these cellular processes. artificial life or virtual evolution attempts to understand evolutionary processes via the computer simulation of simple (artificial) life forms. Other ...

Dialysis

... but typically in modern machines there will be a computer, CRT, a pump, and facility for disposable tubing and filters. The filters (the actual artificial kidneys) are cylindrical, clear plastic outside with the filter materiel visible inside (looks like thick paper). They are perhaps 15-18 inches ...

Eugenics

... were hereditary traits in humans (though neither he nor Darwin had yet a working model of this type of heredity), and that just as one could use artificial selection to exaggerate traits in animals, one could expect similar results applying such models to humans. As he put it in the introduction to ...

Evolution

... genome degradation . Selection of organisms for desirable characteristics, when done by humans, e.g. for agriculture or as pets, is called artificial selection . Baldwinian evolution refers to the way human beings, as cultured animals capable of symbolic (extrasomatic) learning, can ...

Extinction

... . Species listed under this status by the WCU are not known to have any living specimens in the wild, and are maintained only in zoos or other artificial environments. Some of these species are functionally extinct. When possible, modern zoological institutions attempt to maintain a viable ...

Har Gobind Khorana

... on December 12,1968. Dr.Khorana was also the first to synthesize oligonucleotides , that is, strings of nucleotides. These custom designed pieces of artificial genes are widely used in biology labs for sequencing, cloning and engineering new plants and animals.Dr.khorana's invention of oligonucleotides has ...

Photosynthesis

... Temperature In Detail Metabolic pathways involved in photosynthesis: Light reaction Dark reaction See also artificial photosynthesis External links Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology ...

Homeostasis

... psychologists may refer to "stress homeostasis", the tendency of a population or an individual to stay at a certain level of stress, often generating artificial stresses if the "natural" level of stress is not enough. Examples Thermal regulation : The skeletal muscles can shiver to produce heat ...

Marine biology

... on top of a rocky outcrop on the ocean floor. Reefs can evolve on other things too though, which has given rise to the human ability to create artificial reefs . Currently much attention in marine biology is focused on coral reefs and the El Nio weather phenomenon. In the 1998 coral reefs ...

Microsatellite

... This article is about the DNA sequence. See miniaturized satellites for orbiting artificial satellites with a mass of less than 100Kg. A microsatellite is a short, noncoding DNA sequence (a Tandemly Repetitive DNA sequence) that ...

Neuron

... 100 billion ( 10 11 ) neurons and 100 trillion ( 10 14 ) connections ( synapses ) between them. See also F wave Neuroscience artificial neuron External links NeuroWiki , a wiki website for Neuroscience related topics. Cell Centered Database UC San Diego images of ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... in the order of USD 2,500 in 2004 . Primers The DNA fragment to be amplified is determined by selecting primers. Primers are short, artificial DNA strands--not more than fifty (usually 18-25 bp) nucleotides that exactly match the beginning and end of the DNA fragment to be amplified. They ...

Photosynthesis

... Temperature In Detail Metabolic pathways involved in photosynthesis: Light reaction Dark reaction See also artificial photosynthesis External links Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology ...

Plasmid

... and easy way of mass-producing a gene or the protein it then codes for--for example, insulin or even antibiotics. See also Bacterial artificial chromosome ...

Restriction enzyme

... for sale to laboratories. As a result, potential " restriction sites " appear in almost any gene or chromosome . Meanwhile, the sequences of some artificial plasmids include a " linker " that contains dozens of restriction enzyme recognition sequences within a very short segment of DNA. So no matter the ...

Reproduction

... (sexually mature after adolescence ) and Northern Gannet (5-6 years), produce few offspring. Others reproduce quickly, but unless raised in an artificial environment, most offspring do not survive to adults . A rabbit (mature after 8 months) produces 10 - 30 offspring per year, a Nile Crocodile ...

Sociobiology

... by some to be about 80% genetic after one matures. Others, such as R. C Lewontin, reject the idea of 'dividing' environment and heredity in such an artificial way. Here's how scientific sociobiology usually proceeds: A social behaviour is first explained as a sociobiological hypothesis by finding an ...

Species

... the goal-oriented evolution of species, also known the teleological process, have also received renewed attention, particularly by proponents of artificial selection . Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace provided what scientists now consider the most powerful and compelling theory of evolution . ...

Systems biology

... the mysteries of human biology to identify strategies for predicting and preventing diseases such as cancer, diabetes and AIDS. See also artificial life Biomedical cybernetics computer simulation gene regulatory network model signalomics Important publications in systems ...

Virus

... efficient than most cellular life forms as their ratio of functions to working parts is so high. If viruses are alive then the prospect of creating artificial life is enhanced or at least the standards required to call something artificially alive are reduced. Study and applications of viruses ...
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