... An antibody
is a protein used by the immune system to ... objects like bacteria and viruses . Each antibody
recognizes a specific antigen unique to its ...
2 Structure of the antibody
... is a small piece of the antigen to which the antibody
binds. Polyclonal antibodies bind to many ... capabilities are degraded. If the monoclonal antibody
is susceptible to such degradation, it is ... conjugate or effector cell. In fact every intact antibody
can bind to cell receptors or other proteins, ...
... histocompatibility complex / class I MHC /class II MHC
/ polyclonal antibody
... a protein are generated and are often then coupled to "beads". After the antibody
has bound to the protein of interest, this antibody-protein complex can be ... proteins by centrifugation. During centrifugation, the beads, to which the antibody
is coupled, will pellet (bringing the protein of interest down with it) ...
... a guinea pig with its own and foreign guinea pig sperm, finding that an antibody
was produced in response; however the antibody
was inactive, pointing to a suppression response by the immune system . ...
... chromatography can be used in a number of applications, including nucleic acid purification, protein purification from cell free extracts and antibody
purification from blood serum .
Possibly the most common use of affinity chromatography is for the purification of recombinant proteins. ...
... or Medicine for demonstrating how B cells create the enormous diversity of antibodies from only a few genes.
... the laws of inheritance
1919 Karl Ereky , a Hungarian engineer, first used the word biotechnology
1975 Method for producing monoclonal antibody
developed by Kohler and Milstein
1980 Modern biotech is characterized by recombinant DNA technology . The prokaryote model, E. coli , is ...
... and people suffering from other immune deficiencies or autoimmune diseases.
The specificity of the bond between antibody
and antigen has made it an excellent tool in the detection of substances in a variety of diagnostic techniques. Antibodies specific for a desired ...
Major histocompatibility complex
... an appropriate immune response which may include localized inflammation and swelling due to recruitment of phagocytes or may lead to a full-force antibody
immune response due to activation of B cells.
MHC evolution and allelic diversity
MHC gene families are found in essentially all vertebrates ...
... delay this vaccine from commercial release until around 2010 . In January 2005 , Edinburgh University scientists announced the discovery of an antibody
which protects against the disease. The scientists will lead a 17m European consortium of malaria researchers  . It is hoped that the genome ...
... that receives and responds to a specific neurotransmitter , hormone , or other substance.
In immunology , a receptor is the region of an antibody
which shows recognition of an antigen .
Unsolved problems in biology
... system deficiencies ? What are the signs of current or past infection to discover where Ebola hides between human outbreaks? What is the origin of antibody
diversity ? What leads to the complexity of the immune system ? What is the relationship between the immune system and the brain ?