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Antibodies in Biological Definition

Affinity chromatography

... for the procedure is the affinity purification of antibodies from blood serum. If serum is known to contain antibodies against a specific antigen (for example if the ... against a GST-fusion protein it will produce antibodies against the fusion-protein, and ...

Antibody

... it mediates different physiological effects of antibodies ( opsonization , cell lysis , mast cell, ... often neglected.) Other immune cells partner with antibodies to eliminate pathogens depending on which IgG, ... receptors it can express on its surface. The antibodies a single B lymphocyte produces can differ in ...

B cell

... types of B cells: Plasma B cells secrete antibodies which effect the destruction of antigens by ... specific. Humoral immunity (the creation of antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph ) ... how B cells create the enormous diversity of antibodies from only a few genes. See also T ...

Molecular biology

... Main article: Western blot antibodies to most proteins can be created by injecting ... such as a mouse, rabbit, sheep, or donkey. These antibodies can be used for a variety of analytical and ... can then be probed with solutions of antibodies. antibodies that specifically bind to the protein of interest ...

Monoclonal antibody

... Monoclonal antibodies ( mAb ) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by ... substance, it is possible to create monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance; they ...

Blood type

... types along with their respective antigens and antibodies : Individuals with type A blood have red ... cells with antigen A on their surface and produce antibodies against antigen B in their blood serum. Using the ... arrangement, antigen B on the cell and produce antibodies to substance A in their serum. Type AB people ...

Antigen

... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies . Usually, an antigen is a protein or a polysaccharide , but it can be ... cytokines . The cytokines then activate cytotoxic lymphocytes T (CTL), antibodies secreting lymphocytes B , macrophages and other cells. Endogenous ...

Immunology

... . The mainstay of classical immunology has been the interaction between antibodies and antigens . Without an understanding of the properties of these two ... tool in the detection of substances in a variety of diagnostic techniques. antibodies specific for a desired antigen can be conjugated with a radiolabel, ...

Semen

... as that by S. Mathur and J.M. Goust, demonstrated that non-preexisting antibodies were produced in humans in response to the sperm. These antibodies mistakenly recognized native T lymphocytes as foreign antigens , and ...

Antibiotic resistance

... have shown limited efficacy, because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species, and the limited duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. Phage therapy Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that ...

Diabetes mellitus

... by reaction to an infection, for example by one of the viruses of the Coxsackie virus family. A subtype of type 1 (identifiable by the presence of antibodies against beta cells) develops slowly and so is often confused with Type 2. In addition, a small proportion of type 1 cases has the hereditary ...

Ebola

... from the Philippines brought Ebola-Reston into quarantine facilities in Reston , Virginia , Texas , and Pennsylvania . Four people developed antibodies from exposure to the virus, but none fell ill. Ebola–Reston has re-emerged in monkeys several times since then, but no humans have ...

Gene therapy

... problem affecting all virus-based vectors is recognition by the immune system. When familiar viruses are detected in the bloodstream the body sends antibodies to bind to and consume them. In retroviral and other recombination-based approaches, a second problem arises in the unpredictablity of where the new ...

Glycoprotein

... are important for immune cell recognition, especially in mammals . Examples of glycoproteins in the immune system are: molecules such as antibodies (immunoglobulins) which interact directly with antigens molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (or MHC), which are expressed on ...

Hepatitis B

... their risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). Infants born to mothers known to carry Hepatitis B can be treated with antibodies to the hepatitis B virus (Hepatitis B immune globulin or HBIG). When given with the vaccine within twelve hours of birth, the risk of acquiring ...

His-tag

... protein can be eluted with a solution of imidazole . Detection The his tag can also be used in detection of the protein via anti-his-tag antibodies . This can be useful in localization , ELISA , western blots or other immunoanalytical methods. ...

Immune system

... against bacteria and viruses in the body liquids (such as blood ). Its primary means of action are proteins called immunoglobulins , also called antibodies , which are produced by B cells The cellular immune system , which (among other duties) destroys virus-infected cells. The functions of CMI ...

Infertility

... factors Uterine malformations Uterine fibroids ( leiomyoma ) Asherman's Syndrome Cervical factors Cervical stenosis Antisperm antibodies Vaginal factors Vaginismus Vaginal obstruction Male infertility Factors relating to male infertility include 3 : ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... termed antigens . Interestingly, the immune system has another, equally important method to identify antigen: B cells with their membrane-bound antibodies , also known as B cell receptors (BCRs). However, while the BCRs of B cells can bind to antigens without much outside help, the TCRs of T cells ...

Malaria

... and cannot serve as a reliable target for the immune system. By the time the human immune system learns to recognise the protein and starts making antibodies against it, the parasite has switched to another form of the protein, making it difficult for the immune system to keep up. The stickiness of the ...

Antibiotic resistance

... have shown limited efficacy, because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species, and the limited duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. Phage therapy Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that ...

Muscle

... Parkinson's disease to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . Diseases of the motor end plate include myasthenia gravis , a form of muscle weakness due to antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor, and its related condition Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Tetanus and botulism are bacterial ...

Phosphorylation

... by threonine . Tyrosine phosphorylation is relatively rare. However, since tyrosine phosphorylated proteins are relatively easy to purify using antibodies , tyrosine phosphorylation sites are relatively well understood. Histidine and aspartate phosphorylation occurs in prokaryotes as part of ...

Protein

... from place to place but do not change them; receptors , which do not modify their substrates but may simply shift shape upon binding them; and antibodies , which appear to do nothing more than bind, all are proteins as well. The filamentous material that makes up the cytoskeleton of cells and much of ...

T cell

... These CD molecules are convenient diagnostic markers for identifying and quantitating these cells by flow cytometry using specific antibodies against them. T cell activity and secretions are frequently determined using the ELISPOT technique. Contents ...
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