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Antibiotics in Biological Definition

Antibiotic

... that kills or slows the growth of bacteria . antibiotics are one class of "antimicrobials", a larger group ... antimicrobials , such as the sulfonamides . antibiotics are small molecules with a molecular weight ... which included poisons such as strychnine , antibiotics were labelled "magic bullets": drugs which ...

Antibiotic resistance

... 2 Resistant pathogens 3 Alternatives to antibiotics 3.1 Prevention 3.2 Vaccines 3.3 ... which develop. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics , such as second and third generation ... unnecessary prescriptions, improper use of antibiotics by patients, and the use ...

Antibiotic resistance

... 2 Resistant pathogens 3 Alternatives to antibiotics 3.1 Prevention 3.2 Vaccines 3.3 ... which develop. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics , such as second and third generation ... unnecessary prescriptions, improper use of antibiotics by patients, and the use ...

Escherichia coli

... " that can be fatal. However, E. coli are extremely sensitive to antibiotics such as streptomycin , so treatment with antibiotics is usually effective. Certain strains of E.coli are toxigenic (some ...

Nutrition

... of communicable diseases, micro-organisms and how to fight them with antibiotics , and other health developments. A hidden epidemic gradually emerged in ... by use of these methods (see also organic farming )? Are the use of antibiotics and hormones in animal farming ethical and/or safe? Sociological ...

Plasmid

... , which contain genes that can build a resistance against antibiotics or poisons . Historically known as R-factors, before the nature of ... resistance. This is typically a protein which can break down any antibiotics that would otherwise kill the cell. As a result, only the bacteria with ...

Alexander Fleming

... crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. His discovery of penicillin had changed the world of modern medicines by introducing the age of useful antibiotics . External link Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century profile on Alexander Fleming ...

Amino acid

... of those were found in meteoritic material. Microorganisms and plants often produce very uncommon amino acids, which can be found in peptidic antibiotics (e.g. nisin or alamethicin ). Lanthionine is a sulfide-bridged alanine dimer which is found together with unsaturated amino acids in ...

Bacterium

... mode of infection includes contact, air, food, water, and insect-borne microorganisms. The hosts infected with the pathogens may be treated with antibiotics , which can be classified as bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic , which at concentrations that can be reached in bodily fluids either kill bacteria ...

Biotechnology

... is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast for the production of substances like insulin or antibiotics . It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants , such as Bt corn. Genetically altered Mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster ...

Blood

... intravenously are platelets, blood plasma, cryoprecipitate and specific coagulation factor concentrates. Many forms of medication (from antibiotics to chemotherapy ) are administered intravenously, as they are not readily or adequately absorbed by the digestive tract. As stated above, some ...

Bacterium

... mode of infection includes contact, air, food, water, and insect-borne microorganisms. The hosts infected with the pathogens may be treated with antibiotics , which can be classified as bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic , which at concentrations that can be reached in bodily fluids either kill bacteria ...

Microbiology

... in a culture to produce large amounts of protein using genes encoded on a plasmid. The proteins produced vary widely, some of them are for example antibiotics . Many microbes exploit energy by the process of anaerobic fermentation, in which different simple organic molecules are produced. This gave rise ...

Microevolution

... ). Typically, observable instances of evolution are examples of microevolution; for example, bacterial strains that have become resistant to antibiotics . Because microevolution can be observed directly, both pro-evolution and some anti-evolution groups agree that it is a fact of life. See also ...

Mycology

... are the yeasts and eukaryotic model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe . Many fungi produce toxins , antibiotics , and other secondary metabolites . For example, the cosmopolitian (worldwide) genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of ...

Phage

... as cloning vectors to insert DNA into bacteria. Phage therapy has been used since the 1940s in the former Soviet Union as an alternative to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections—because killing bacteria is what phages do best. There is an extensive library of research into specific ...

Virus

... thus far, are vaccination to provide resistance to infection, and drugs that treat the symptoms of viral infections. Patients often ask for antibiotics , which are useless against viruses, and their misuse against viral infections is one of the causes of antibiotic resistance in bacteria . That ...
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