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Alternative in Biological Definition

Alternative splicing

... alternative splicing is the process that occurs in ... proteins, or SR proteins . The use of alternative splicing factors leads to a modification of the ... or other regulating process, which regulates the alternative splicing. There are four known modes ...

Cancer

... 4.4 Clinical trials 4.5 Complementary and alternative medicine 5 Causes and pathophysiology ... the first to benefit. Complementary and alternative medicine Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a group of diverse medical and ...

Charles Darwin

... 11.1 Published Works 11.2 Letters 11.3 alternative links 12 References 13 See also ... the service of prejudice and falsehood" (several alternative versions of this supposed quote exist, see ... Bibliography: Darwin Bibliography (including alternative editions, contributions to books & ...

Spliceosome

... and the two exons are spliced together. alternative splicing alternative splicing (the re-combination of different ... genetic diversity in eukaryotes. For example alternative splicing is what makes our immune systems so ...

BLAST

... is vastly more used than the Smith-Waterman algorithm. An extremely fast alternative to BLAST that compares nucleotide sequences to the genome is BLAT ( B last L ike A lignment T ool). A more precise, and much slower, alternative to BLAST is the Smith Waterman. Program The BLAST program can ...

Intron

... in the spliced mRNA are called exons . Introns sometimes allow for alternative splicing of a gene, so that several different proteins that share some ... from a single gene. The control of mRNA splicing, and hence of which alternative is produced, is performed by a wide variety of signal molecules. Introns ...

Origin of life

... of tracing today's biochemistry back to ancestral reactions that provide alternative pathways to the synthesis of organic building blocks from simple gaseous ... its food and become extinct. "Primitive" extraterrestrial life An alternative to Earthly abiogenesis is the hypothesis that primitive life may have ...

Prion

... SC by bringing a molecule of each of the two together into a complex. An alternative idea is that prion propagation does not require direct action of a prion ... somehow alters the way in which PrP is synthesized, shunting it down an alternative metabolic pathway that results in the formation of more PrP SC instead ...

Reverse genetics

... rather than the starting point, is in reverse genetics the end point. An alternative used in organisms such as C. elegans is to randomly induce DNA ... the cell for efficacy (e.g. the dicer proteins, the RISC complex) a simple alternative for gene knockdown is Morpholino antisense oligos. While RNAi acts by ...

Allele

... An allele is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome . An example is the gene for blossom color in many species of flower ...

Antibiotic resistance

... of the antibodies produced. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. Phage therapy Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that can cope with the problem of resistance. See also tuberculosis nosocomial infection External links Vancomycin Resistant ...

Barbiturate

... to permanent disability or even death) of barbiturates and the ever-increasing number of fatalities associated with them led to the development of alternative medications, namely benzodiazepines . Today, less than 10 percent of all sedative/hypnotic prescriptions in the United States are for barbiturates. ...

Cellular respiration

... and elemental sulfur), carbon dioxide, iron compounds, manganese compounds, cobalt compounds, and uranium compounds. However, none of these alternative electron acceptors yields as much energy from respiration as does oxygen. In environments where oxygen is present, typically only aerobic ...

Chromosome walking

... more popular for large-scale sequencing (e.g., the Human Genome Project ) is shotgun sequencing . See also Shotgun sequencing - an alternative method, using random, rather than consecutive, sub-strands. ...

Diffusion

... This article is about the physical mechanism of diffusion. For alternative meanings, see diffusion (disambiguation) . Diffusion is the spontaneous spreading of something such as particles , heat , or momentum . ...

Down syndrome

... such as Germany and Denmark advise a two-teacher system where the second teacher takes over a group of disabled children within the class. A popular alternative is cooperation between special education schools and mainstream schools. In cooperation, the core subjects are taught in separate classes in order ...

Evolution

... theory. Most biologists believe that adaptation occurs through the accumulation of many mutations of small effect. However, macromutation is an alternative process for adaption which involves a single, very large scale mutation. Differential survival of traits While mutation can create new ...

Exon

... for a specific portion of the complete protein , however, not all exons in a given gene will end up in the final protein due to the process of alternative splicing . Some mRNA transcripts have no exons whatsoever and thus are sometimes referred to as non-coding RNA . Exon trapping is a molecular ...

Gene

... of the complexity of the splicing process, one transcribed RNA may be spliced in alternate ways to produce not one but a variety of proteins ( alternative splicing ) from one pre-mRNA. Prokaryotes produce a similar effect by shifting reading frames during translation. The translation of RNA ...

Glycolysis

... carbohydrate catabolism . The most common and well-known form of glycolysis is the Embden - Meyerhof pathway. The term can be taken to include alternative pathways, such as the Entner-Doudoroff Pathway . However, glycolysis will be used here as a synonym for the Embden-Meyerhof pathway . ...

Glycome

... by the sheer multiplicity of their possibilities of combination and interaction of the carbohydrates with each other and with proteins. An alternative definition is the collective identity of the entirety of carbohydrates in a cell. In those definitions, the word sugar , the word glycan and the ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... distinction is assumed to be negligibly small. The null hypothesis is that the population is in Hardy–Weinberg proportions, and the alternative hypothesis is that the population is not in Hardy–Weinberg proportions. Table 3: Example Hardy–Weinberg principle calculation ...

Immune system

... system is a very complex group of serum proteins which is activated in a cascade fashion. Three different pathways, the classical , alternative , and mannose-binding lectin pathways, are involved in complement activation. The first recognizes antigen-antibody complexes, the second ...

Insulin

... There have been several attempts to improve upon this mode of administering insulin as many people find injection awkward and painful. One alternative is jet injection (also sometimes used for some vaccinations) which has different insulin delivery peaks and durations as compared to needle injection ...

Mendelian inheritance

... had the impact it made on the world of genetics. Mendel's law of segregation Mendel's law of segregation essentially has three parts. alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters. This is the concept of alleles . Alleles are different versions of genes that ...

Metabolism

... pyruvate and ATP, does not require oxygen . Embden-Meyerhof pathway , the common glycolysis pathway. Entner-Doudoroff Pathway , an alternative glycolysis pathway in few bacteria . Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt), generation of NADPH from glucose. ...

Antibiotic resistance

... of the antibodies produced. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. Phage therapy Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that can cope with the problem of resistance. See also tuberculosis nosocomial infection External links Vancomycin Resistant ...

Natural selection

... alternative meaning Natural Selection (computer game) . Natural selection is the primary mechanism within the scientific theory of evolution , i.e. it ...

Nutrition

... group Nutrientfacts.com - Searchable database of nutritional information for common foods Nutrition Dictionary Asian Diet Pyramid: An alternative to the American food guide pyramid USDA Frequently asked questions Nubella Health and Nutrition News Set of (orphaned!) slides on ...

Phage

... molecular biology as cloning vectors to insert DNA into bacteria. Phage therapy has been used since the 1940s in the former Soviet Union as an alternative to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections—because killing bacteria is what phages do best. There is an extensive library of research ...

Proteome

... proteome. The proteome is larger than the genome , expecially in eukaryotes , in the sense there are more proteins than genes . This is due to alternative splicing of genes and post-translational modifications like glycosylation or phosphorylation . Moreover the proteome has at least two levels ...

Proteomics

... than there are proteins in the human proteome (~22,000 genes vs. ~200,000 proteins). The large increase in protein diversity is thought to be due to alternative splicing and post-translational modification of proteins. This discrepancy implies that protein diversity cannot be fully characterized by gene ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... and Alfred Russel Wallace . See also: Adaptive radiation References Eldredge, Niles, and Gould, Stephen Jay:"Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism" in: T.Schopf (Hrsg.), Models in Paleobiology, 82-115, Freeman, Cooper and Co., San Francisco, (1972); reprinted in: ...

Rudolf Steiner

... to all was a fundamental conviction that the relation of the human mind to the world was ultimately not dualistic but ... essence this alternative conception did not oppose the Kantian epistemology but rather went beyond it, subsuming it in a larger and subtler understanding of human knowledge. ...

Splicing (genetics)

... biosynthesis . In many cases, the splicing process can create many unique proteins from a large collection of exons. This phenomenon is called alternative splicing . XXXX EEEE III EEEEEEEEEE IIII EEEEEEEEEE XXXX DNA with exons and introns ↓transcription↓ EEEE ...
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