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Alpha in Biological Definition

Collagen

... regular arrangement of amino acids in each of the alpha chains of the collagen sub-units. The sequence ... disallowed, tight coiling of each of the alpha chain subunits of tropocollagen, where there is a ... just 0.3 nm as opposed to the .36 nm of a regular alpha helical coil. Hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline ...

Secondary structure

... of the 3D structure of the Myoglobin protein. alpha helices are shown in colour, and random coil ... secondary structure of a protein includes alpha helices , beta sheets , turns , and random ... Min length 3 residues. H = 4-turn helix ( alpha helix ). Min length 4 residues. I = 5-turn ...

Amino acid

... , this shorter and more general term is frequently used to refer to alpha amino acids: those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate ... structure of an amino acid The general structure of proteinogenic alpha amino acids is: COOH | H-C-R | NH 2 Where "R" ...

Endosymbiont

... but phylogenetic analysis indicates that these symbionts belong to the alpha group of the class Proteobacteria , relating them to Rhizobium and ... represent a new lineage of extracellular marine symbionts in the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. Burnett, W J and J D McKenzie ...

Endosymbiont

... but phylogenetic analysis indicates that these symbionts belong to the alpha group of the class Proteobacteria , relating them to Rhizobium and ... represent a new lineage of extracellular marine symbionts in the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. Burnett, W J and J D McKenzie ...

Protein

... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin , showing coloured alpha helices . This protein was the first to have its structure solved by ... Secondary structure : highly patterned sub-structures— alpha helix and beta sheet —or segments of chain that assume no stable ...

Alpha helix

... of amino acid (n) can establish a hydrogen bond with the C=O group of amino acid (n+4). Short polypeptides usually are not able to adopt the alpha helical structure, since the entropic cost associated with the folding of the polypeptide chain is too high. Some amino acids (called helix ...

Apoptosis

... to p53 ... (see previous section on Cell damage or infection ), Takaoka and co-workers have described their research on how interferon alpha and beta (IFN-alpha/beta)induce transcription of the p53 gene , resulting in the increase of p53 protein level and enhancement of cancer ...

ATP synthase

... model was essentially correct. In the crystal structure, the F 1 particle can be seen to be composed of a cylinder of 6 subunits , alternating alpha and beta subunits, that form a ring around an asymmetrical gamma subunit. Facilitated diffusion of protons causes the F O particle to rotate, ...

Carbohydrate

... straight-chain form. It should be noted that the ring form has one more optically active carbon than the straight-chain form, and so has both an alpha and a beta form, which interconvert in equilibrium. However, the carbohydrate may further react with an alcohol to form an acetal or ketal , ...

Cellulose

... helping keep plants rigid. Given a cellulose material, the portion that does not dissolve in a 17.5% solution of sodium hydroxide at 20 deg C. is alpha Cellulose , which is true cellulose; the portion that dissolves and then precipitates upon acidification is Beta Cellulose , and the proportion that ...

Cloning

... January 2000) pig : 5 Scottish PPL piglets (March 2000), Xena (female, August 2000) gaur : Noah (male, January 2001) cattle : alpha and Beta (males, 2001) cat : CopyCat "CC" (female, late 2001), Little Nicky , 2004, was the first cat cloned for commercial reasons mice ...

Cytoskeleton

... Main article: microtubules They are hollow cylinders of about 25 nm., formed by 13 protofilaments which, in turn, are polymers of alpha and beta tubulin . They have a very dynamic behaviour, binding GTP for polymerization, they are organized by the centrosome . They play key ...

DNA

... DNA is helical A key inspiration in the work of all of these teams was the discovery in 1948 by Pauling that many proteins included helical (see alpha helix ) shapes. Pauling had deduced this structure from X-ray patterns. Even in the initial crude diffraction data from DNA, it was evident that the ...

Hepatitis B

... infection. Treatments are available in the form of antivirals such as lamivudine and adefovir and immune system modulators such as interferon alpha . There are several other antivirals under investigation. Roughly, all of the currently available treatments, when used alone, are about equally ...

Insulin

... glucose levels drop lower than this, especially to dangerously low levels, release of hyperglycemic hormones (most prominently glucagon from Islet alpha cells) forces release of glucose into the blood from cellular stores. The release of insulin is strongly inhibited by the stress hormone adrenalin ...

Pigment

... Chlorophyll Bilirubin Hemocyanin Hemoglobin Myoglobin Light emitting Luciferin Lipochromes Carotenoids alpha and Beta Carotene Cyanins Anthocyanin Lycopene Rhodopsin Xanthophylls Canthaxanthin Zeaxanthin Lutein ...

Prion

... to bypass the species barrier to transmission. The figure at right shows a model of two conformations of PrP; on the left is the normal, alpha helical form, while on the right is the prion form. Note the increased sheet content (green arrows) in the prion version of the molecule. These ...

Sociobiology

... by the altruists, as predicted. Another successful example was a quantitative description of infanticide by male harem-mating animals when the alpha male is displaced. Female infanticide and fetal resorption are active areas of study. In general, females with more bearing opportunities may ...

Transmembrane protein

... their N-terminal on the exoplasmic face and their C-terminal on the cytoplasmic face. Many transmembrane proteins have multiple membrane spanning alpha helix segments which anchors them to the membrane. Most transmembrane proteins have an internal topogenic sequence . Types There are two ...

Transmembrane receptor

... bind to the extracellular domain. The transmembrane domain In the majority of receptors for which structural evidence exists, transmembrane alpha helices make up most of the transmembrane domain. In certain receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor , the transmembrane domain ...
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