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Alleles in Biological Definition

Allele

... that gene. An organism which has two different alleles of the gene is said to be heterozygous . Often ... (sometimes called blending inheritance ) when alleles blend their traits in the phenotype . An ... flowers with codominant "blue" and "purple" alleles for petal color, the resulting offspring would ...

Allele frequency

... an allele that has a frequency of 20%. However, alleles distribute randomly only in the absence of ... equilibrium . The frequencies of all the alleles of a given gene often are graphed together as an ... to changes in the distribution and frequencies of alleles -- in other words, to evolution . Besides ...

Evolution

... specifically as a change in the frequency of alleles in a population from one generation to the ... of traits While mutation can create new alleles , other factors influence the frequency of ... between successive generations may result in some alleles disappearing from the population. Two separate ...

Gene

... Variants of a single gene are known as alleles , and differences in alleles may give rise to differences in traits, for ... allele is called the wild type allele, and rare alleles are called mutants . Normally, RNA is an ...

Genetic drift

... acts on populations , altering the frequency of alleles and the predominance of traits amongst members ... fluctuations (sampling error ). When the alleles of a gene do not differ with regard to fitness, ... small, genetic drift will be stronger. Drifting alleles usually have a finite lifetime. As the frequency ...

Genetic recombination

... refers to the molecular process by which alleles at two genes in a linkage group can become separated. In this process alleles are replaced by different alleles from the same genes thereby preserving the ...

Hardy-Weinberg principle

... In the simplest case of a single locus with two alleles A and a with allele frequencies of p and q ... 5.1 Generalization for more than two alleles 5.2 Generalization for polyploidy 5.3 ... statistical description for the HWP, is that the alleles for the next generation for any given individual ...

Homozygote

... are diploid or polyploid and have the same alleles at a locus (position) on homologous ... occurs when a particular locus comprises two alleles for the dominant trait (e.g. AA ). A ... occurs when a particular locus comprises two alleles for the recessive trait (e.g. aa ). See ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... HLA-DRB1, have roughly 250, 500, and 300 known alleles respectively -- diversity which is truly ... classical loci routinely find tens to a hundred alleles -- still highly diverse. And perhaps even more remarkable is that many of these alleles are quite ancient: it is often the case that an ...

Mendelian inheritance

... in inherited characters. This is the concept of alleles . alleles are different versions of genes that impart the ... comes from the mother, one from the father. These alleles may be the same (true-breeding organisms, e.g. ...

Molecular evolution

... 2.4 The neutral theory 2.5 Infinite alleles model 2.6 Infinite sites model 3 ... to the next generation. In this way, the alleles that these surviving individuals contribute to ... developing workaround solutions. Infinite alleles model The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... the result of genetic drift acting on neutral alleles . A new allele arises typically through the ... new neutral alleles. Through drift, these new alleles may become more common within the population. ... revolved around the relative percentages of alleles that are "neutral" versus "non-neutral" in any ...

Blood type

... type is controlled by a single gene with three alleles : i , A , and B . The gene encodes a ... phenotype : they have inherited two recessive alleles of the H gene, (their blood group is O h and ... for the A allele. However, if only recessive alleles for the H antigen are inherited (hh), as in the ...

Trait

... variations of that sequence are called alleles. alleles can be significantly different and produce different product RNAs . Combinations of different alleles thus go on to generate different traits ... flow charted above. For example, if the alleles on homologous chromosomes exhibit a "simple ...

Ewens's sampling formula

... at a particular locus then the probability that there are a 1 alleles represented once in the sample, and a 2 alleles represented twice, and so on, is for some positive number ...

Gene pool

... gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living ... reduced fitness and an increased chance of extinction . When many alleles exist for a given gene or locus , a population is said to be polymorphic ...

Isozyme

... over time. Although, strictly speaking, allozymes represent different alleles of the same gene , and isozymes represent different genes whose ... as isozymes ) and (2) enzymes that are the product of different alleles of the same gene (described as allozymes ). Isozymes are usually the ...

Locus

... sequence) on a chromosome . A locus can be occupied by any of the alleles of the gene. Diploid or polyploid cells are either homozygous (have the same allele at a locus) or heterozygous (have different alleles at a locus). In mathematics , a locus is the set of points ...

Phenotype

... is determined to some extent by genotype , or by the identity of the alleles that an individual carries at one or more positions on the chromosomes . ... by environmental factors. Thus, the identity of one or a few known alleles does not always enable prediction of the phenotype. Nevertheless, ...

Barr body

... development, this results in different regions of the adult body having different chromosomes inactivated. This can be significant if different alleles of a gene are present on the different chromosomes; in some regions of the body one allele will be active, and in other regions the other will. This ...

Heterozygote

... Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes . When an organism is referred to as a heterozygote, or being heterozygous for a specific ...

Meiosis

... (through crossing over ) of genes, ensuring heritable variation. The reduction of chromosomes from the diploid to the haploid condition separates alleles so that each gamete carries a sole allele for a gene locus. In addition, the orientation of the metaphase I/II equatorial lining-up is random, ...

Modern evolutionary synthesis

... ) and recombination (crossing over of homologous chromosomes during meiosis ). Evolution consists primarily of changes in the frequencies of alleles between one generation and another as a result of genetic drift , gene flow and natural selection . Speciation occurs gradually when ...

Natural selection

... (computer game) . Natural selection is the primary mechanism within the scientific theory of evolution , i.e. it alters the frequency of alleles within a population . After a century of obscure and vague preliminary formulations, it was proposed as the main mechanism of evolution by ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... is homozygous T, homozygous C, or heterzygous T/C. This methodology has several applications, such as amplifying certain haplotypes (when certain alleles at 2 or more SNPs occur together on the same chromosome [Linkage Disequilibrium]) or detection of recombinant chromosomes and the study of meiotic ...
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