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Alcohol in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl ... almost always to ethanol , also known as grain alcohol , and often to any beverage that contains ethanol ... ( addiction to alcohol). Other forms of alcohol are usually described with a clarifying ...

Drug

... for a more specific purpose (such as the use of alcohol as a depressant or caffeine as a stimulant) may ... may be designed also (not least with respect to alcohol and tobacco ) to generate government tax ... to alter mood or body function for recreation alcohol Nicotine Caffeine Hallucinogens ...

Enzyme

... Studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by yeast, Louis Pasteur came to the conclusion ... with the word ending in "-ase". Examples are alcohol dehydrogenase and DNA polymerase . Kinases ... by converting ATP into cyclic AMP alcohol dehydrogenase : breaks down alcohols to ...

Ethyl alcohol

... . Disclaimer and references Ethyl alcohol , also known as ethanol or grain alcohol , is a flammable, colorless chemical compound , ... parlance, it is often referred to simply as alcohol . Its chemical formula is C 2 H 5 OH . ...

Fermentation

... refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast , but other fermentation processes ... turn creates a beer lower in body and higher in alcohol . While a rest closer to the higher end of the ... products, filmjlk , fermented Baltic Herring , alcohol History Since fruits ferment naturally, ...

Phospholipid

... , a negatively charged phosphate group, an alcohol and a backbone. Phospholipids with a glycerol ... a phosphoester linkage between the hydroxyl of an alcohol ( serine or inositol ) and cytidine ... In the synthesis of phospatidyl ethanolamine, the alcohol is first phosphorylated by ATP and subsequently ...

Cancer

... Additional examples of modifiable cancer risk factors include alcohol consumption (associated with increased risk of oral, esophageal, breast, ... Based on epidemiologic evidence, it is now thought that avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, being physically active, and maintaining recommended body ...

Barbiturate

... very popular in the first half of the 20th century. In moderate amounts, these drugs produce a state of intoxication that is remarkably similar to alcohol intoxication . Symptoms include slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, and impaired judgment. Depending on the dose, frequency, and duration of ...

Bacterium

... Antiseptic measures may be taken to prevent infection by bacteria, for example, prior to cutting the skin during surgery or swabbing skin with alcohol when piercing the skin with the needle of a syringe. Sterilization of surgical and dental instruments is done to make them sterile or ...

Carbohydrate

... form, and so has both an alpha and a beta form, which interconvert in equilibrium. However, the carbohydrate may further react with an alcohol to form an acetal or ketal , in which case the two forms become distinct. This is the basic type of link between the monosaccharide units of ...

Denaturation

... to a structural change in macromolecules caused by extreme conditions. Denaturation can refer to the intentional adulteration of ethyl alcohol so that it is unsuitable as a beverage. Denaturation of fissile materials is the process of transforming them so that they cannot be used in ...

Bacterium

... Antiseptic measures may be taken to prevent infection by bacteria, for example, prior to cutting the skin during surgery or swabbing skin with alcohol when piercing the skin with the needle of a syringe. Sterilization of surgical and dental instruments is done to make them sterile or ...

Hepatitis B

... of persistent infection, and development of viral resistance with treatment. Chronic carriers should be strongly encouraged to avoid consuming alcohol as it increases their risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). Infants born to mothers known to carry Hepatitis B can be ...

Hydrolysis

... an alkyl group collects the remaining hydroxyl group from the water molecule. Thus the ester is effectively reversed to its component alcohol and carboxylic acid . Hydrolysing peptide link of amino acids In other hydrolysis reactions such as hydrolysing the peptide links of amino ...

Metabolism

... xenobiotic compounds through specialized enzyme systems: Cytochrome P450 oxidase system Flavin-containing monooxygenase system alcohol metabolism Nitrogen metabolism Nitrogen metabolism includes the pathways for turnover and excretion of nitrogen in organisms as well ...

Redox

... certain wavelengths of infrared light. In organic chemistry , stepwise oxidation of a hydrocarbon produces water and, successively, an alcohol , an aldehyde or a ketone , carboxylic acid , and then a peroxide . In inorganic chemistry terms, incompletely oxidized carbon takes ...

Redox

... certain wavelengths of infrared light. In organic chemistry , stepwise oxidation of a hydrocarbon produces water and, successively, an alcohol , an aldehyde or a ketone , carboxylic acid , and then a peroxide . In inorganic chemistry terms, incompletely oxidized carbon takes ...

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

... a phenomenon known as "SSRI discontinuation syndrome" (Tamam & Ozpoyraz, 2002). Compared to the withdrawal symptoms of such drugs as opiates , alcohol or cocaine , these are slight. Their effectiveness does not appear to be higher than tricyclic antidepressants , which were the most commonly ...
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