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Affinity in Biological Definition

Affinity chromatography

... affinity chromatography is a biochemical separation ... 2 Specific Uses 3 Batch verses column 4 affinity Chromatography Protocols General ... property which can be exploited during the affinity purification process. The process itself can be ...

Allostery

... to assume the R state, thereby enhancing their affinity for substrate. Sequential model The ... substrate binding causes increased substrate affinity in adjacent subunits Allosteric activation ... when the binding of one ligand decreases the affinity for substrate at other active sites. For example, ...

Allostery

... to assume the R state, thereby enhancing their affinity for substrate. Sequential model The ... substrate binding causes increased substrate affinity in adjacent subunits Allosteric activation ... when the binding of one ligand decreases the affinity for substrate at other active sites. For example, ...

Chromatography

... chromatography 7 Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography 8 High performance liquid ... 9 Gel permeation chromatography 10 affinity chromatography 11 See also 12 External ... as stationary phase. Immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography IMAC is a popular and powerful ...

Signal transduction

... . Most extracellular chemical signals have affinity for water and are unable to penetrate the oily ... which they are able to do because of a partial affinity for oily surroundings (see hydrophobic ). ... complex, which is defined by the affinity of the hormone for the receptor, the ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... or enzymes in biological washing powders. The incorporation of an affinity tag on a recombinant protein will generate a fusion protein which can be more easily purified by affinity chromatography . Figure 5 : Cloning a gene using a plasmid. (1) ...

Proteomics

... various tagging or chemical modification methods, such as isotope-coded affinity tags (ICATs) or combined fractional diagnoal chromatography (COFRADIC). ... to identify and quantify all the levels of proteins found in cells. affinity chromatography , yeast two hybrid techniques, fluorescence resonance ...

Active transport

... against either an electrical or concentration gradient (collectively termed an electrochemical gradient ). This is achieved by either altering the affinity of the binding site or altering the rate at which the protein changes conformations. Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Types ...

Antibody

... also known as the antiserum , because it now contains the desired antibodies, is commonly purified with Protein A/G purification or antigen affinity chromatography. If the lymphocytes that produce the antibodies can be isolated and immortalized, then a monoclonal antibody can be obtained. ...

Apoptosis

... are committed to programmed cell death. The survivors are tested as well for potentially damaging autoimmune reactions, and those that show high affinity to healthy self antigen are killed via apoptosis. Be aware that the above paragraphs present a highly simplified picture: the actual process in ...

Blood

... bicarbonate ions. Transport of hydrogen ions Some oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and becomes deoxyhemoglobin. Deoxyhemoglobin has a much greater affinity for H+ than does oxyhemoglobin so it binds most of the hydrogen ions. Health and disease Ancient medicine Hippocratic medicine ...

Genetic code

... shows patterns that suggest that this is not the case. Recent aptamer experiments have shown that amino acids have indeed a selective chemical affinity for the base triplets that code for them. This suggests that the current, complex transcription mechanism involving tRNA and associated enzymes is ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... (cell death). Most T C cells have present on the cell surface the protein CD8 , which is attracted to portions of the Class I MHC molecule. This affinity keeps the T C cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. T C cells with CD8 surface protein are called ...

DNA

... of the genome appears to encode protein. The function of the rest is a matter of speculation. It is known that certain nucleotide sequences specify affinity for DNA binding proteins , which play a wide variety of vital roles, in particular through control of replication and transcription. These sequences ...

Enzyme

... / K m is a useful quantity for comparing different enzymes against each other, or the same enzyme with different substrates, because it takes both affinity and catalytic ability into consideration. The theoretical maxium for k cat / K m is about 10 8 to 10 9 (mol/L) -1 s -1 . At this point, every ...

Genetic code

... shows patterns that suggest that this is not the case. Recent aptamer experiments have shown that amino acids have indeed a selective chemical affinity for the base triplets that code for them. This suggests that the current, complex transcription mechanism involving tRNA and associated enzymes is ...

Helper T cell

... response . Most T H cells have present on the cell surface the protein CD4 , which is attracted to portions of the Class II MHC molecule. This affinity keeps the T H cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen-specific activation. T H cells with CD4 surface protein are called ...

His-tag

... be followed by a suitable amino acid sequence that facilitates a removal of the his-tag. Purpose Purification The his-tag can be used in affinity chromatography together with a column that has nickel bound to it. Histidine is a good ligand for nickel so the fusion protein will bind to ...

Isozyme

... an isozyme is glucokinase , a variant of hexokinase which is not inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate . Its different regulatory features and lower affinity for glucose (compared to other hexokinases), allows it to serve different functions in cells of specific organs, such as control of insulin release ...

Lambda phage

... to OR2, an effect called cooperativity . Thus, OR1 and OR2 are almost always simultaneously occupied by cI. However, this does not increase the affinity between cI and OR3, which will be occupied only when the cI concentration is high. In the absence of cI proteins, the cro gene may be ...

Michaelis-Menten kinetics

... M ) a.k.a. Michaelis constant . This represents (for enzyme reactions exhibiting simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics) the dissociation constant ( affinity for substrate ) of the enzyme - substrate (ES) complex. Low values indicate that the ES complex is held together very tightly and rarely ...

Monoclonal antibody

... detect a substance in a whole cell). Monoclonal antibodies can also be used to purify a substance with techniques called immunoprecipitation and affinity chromatography . In medicinal treatments, the small variation (if any) in recognizing the antigen helps to reduce side effects. However, there ...

Protein

... specificity . The particle that binds is called a ligand . The strength of ligand-protein binding is a property of the binding site known as affinity . Since proteins are involved in practically every function performed by a cell, the mechanisms for controlling these functions therefore depend on ...

T cell

... by type II and type III cortical epithelioreticular cells . Only those cells that recognize the antigen presented and bind the MHC molecule with the affinity high enough, survive. Other cells go into apoptosis and their remains are engulfed by macrophages. This process is called positive selection . All ...
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