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Primer

... ) cannot begin synthesizing a new DNA strand from scratch, but can only add to an existing strand of nucleotides . In most natural DNA ... (DMT), which prevents the building of a nucleotide chain. To add a nucleotide, DMT is chemically removed, and the nucleotide is added. The ...

Alcohol

... Some examples of simple alcohols and how to name them: Common names for alcohols usually take the name of the corresponding alkyl group and add the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol or tert -butyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n -propyl alcohol or isopropyl ...

Biodiversity

... by a greater comprehension of the functions, interactions and communities. Moreover, exchanges of genes occurring between the species tend to add complexity to the inventory. Hotspots of biodiversity One definition of a biodiversity hotspot is a region with many endemic species. ...

Fermentation

... process serves to terminate enzymatic processes, precipitate proteins, isomerize hop resins , concentrate and sterilize the wort. Hops add flavour, aroma and bitterness to the beer. At the end of the boil, the hopped wort settles to clarify it in a vessel called a "whirl-pool" and ...

Gene therapy

... division. So the descendants of that cell will not have the extra gene. This means that treatment with the adenovirus will require regular doses to add the missing gene every time new cells are produced without the gene. Adeno-associated viruses Adeno-associated viruses , from the parvovirus ...

Long-term potentiation

... Let us assume that the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular changes that add to its ... When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth ...

Neutral theory of molecular evolution

... becomes a universal feature of the population or species. When an allele carrying one of these new substitutions becomes fixed, the effect is to add a substitution to the sequence of the previously fixed allele. In this way, neutral substitutions tend to accumulate, and genomes tend to evolve. ...

Polymerase chain reaction

... temperatures) and, when used in PCR, did not break down when the mixture was heated to separate the DNA strands. Since there was no longer a need to add new DNA-Polymerase for each cycle, the process of copying a given DNA strand could be simplified and automated. One of the first thermostable ...

Potential energy

... work done going back the other way is ( a - b ) so that the total work done from The nice thing about potential energy is that you can add any number to all points in space and it doesn't affect the physics. If we redefine the potential at A to be a + c and the potential at B to be ...

Ribosome

... rate is associated with the size of the particle. Svedberg units are not additive - two subunits together can have Svedberg values that do not add up to that of the entire ribosome.] Figure 3 : Translation (1) of mRNA by a ribosome (2) into a polypeptide chain (3). The mRNA begins ...

Stem cell

... 2. Create an environment to mimic the conditions found in bone marrow by using stromal cells, which provide the structure inside bone marrow, and 3. add a growth factor called erythropoietin, which provides a signal to the stem cells to begin the transformation into red blood cells. The stem cells can ...
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