radiation describes the rapid speciation of a ... driven by mutation and natural selection .
radiation often occurs when a species is ... , about 300 million years ago.
The dynamics of adaptive
radiation is such that, within a relatively short ...
... collection of organs and tissues involved in the adaptive
defense of a body against foreign biological material. It may be broken down into the adaptive
immune system (only found in vertebrates  ), ... a body's defense systems, encompassing both the adaptive
immune system and other passive defenses, such as ...
... environments criminal behavior might be adaptive
 . Some authorities say that capital ... Theory of Evolution ) said that "racism" could be adaptive
because it enables groups with superior genetic ... in the above-mentioned theories of the adaptive
nature of racism. Also, it is widely known in ...
... stepping stone to the modern theory of adaptive
mutation . Lamarck's long-discarded ideas of the ... also possess them. Thus, over many generations, adaptive
variations will accumulate in the population, ... should be emphasized that whether a variation is adaptive
or non-adaptive depends on the environment: ...
... immune system has been divided into innate immune system , and acquired or adaptive
immune system , the latter of which is further divided into humoral and ... of harm.
Insects and other arthropods , while not possessing true adaptive
immunity, show highly evolved systems of innate immunity, and are ...
... or crowding-out due to population growth can change drastically the adaptive
traits required to survive - in such conditions, or in any circumstance ... iterations of this process, organisms will develop more and more complex adaptive
Mechanisms of natural selection
What makes one trait more ...
... Queen in which he discussed the debate in theoretical biology over the adaptive
benefit of sexual reproduction to those species in which it appears. The ... that the traditionally accepted theory ( The Vicar of Bray ) only showed adaptive
benefit at the level of the species or group, not at the level of the ...
... External links
How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody
PLOS primer: V(D)J Recombination and the Evolution of the adaptive
... the rules which underlay the behavior.
James Doyne Farmer was a key figure in tying artificial life research to the emerging field of complex adaptive
systems , working at the Center for Nonlinear Studies (a basic research section of Los Alamos National Laboratory ), just as its star chaos ...
... biological evolution but as a supplement to it, as the main means of human adaptation to the world.
This view of culture as a symbolic system with adaptive
functions, which varies from place to place, led anthropologists to conceive of different cultures as defined by distinct patterns (or structures) of ...
... In evolutionary biology , fitness landscapes or adaptive
landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes ) and replicatory success. It is assumed that every genotype ...
... population, and changing the diversity of the group. Drift is observed most strongly in small populations and results in changes that need not be adaptive
1 Allele frequencies
2 Drift versus selection
3 Genetic drift in populations
... of the major histocompatibility complex (or MHC), which are expressed on the surface of cells and interact with T-cells as part of the adaptive
Other examples of glycoproteins include:
components of the zona pellucida , which surrounds the oocyte , and is important ...
In 1942, he and Salvador Luria demonstrated that bacterial resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not adaptive
change. For that, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969 , sharing it with Alfred Hershey .
From the 1950s on, ...
... in a milliliter of liquid culture.
These traits allowed Joshua and Esther Lederberg to devise an elegant experiment in 1951 demonstrating that adaptive
mutations arise from preadaptation rather than directed mutation. For this purpose, they invented replica plating , which allowed them to transfer ...
... with the independent proposals of the theory of evolution by natural selection of Patrick Matthew and Alfred Russel Wallace .
See also: adaptive
Eldredge, Niles, and Gould, Stephen Jay:"Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism" in: T.Schopf ...
... (also known as the "Sewall Wright effect") and developed the inbreeding coefficient and many of its applications.
Wright was the developer of adaptive
surfaces ( fitness landscapes ), and he emphasized the importance of the interaction of genetic drift and natural selection in determining the ...
Protection: an anatomical barrier between the internal and external environment in bodily defence; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive
Sensation: enables irritability
Storage: acts as a storage centre for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of ...
... can cause drastic changes (called "saltation") that result in speciation in a very short time. Speciation is also related to a process known as adaptive
Ernst Mayr proposed a speciation mechanism called allopatry . Allopatry begins when subpopulations of a ...