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Adaptive in Biological Definition

Adaptive radiation

... adaptive radiation describes the rapid speciation of a ... driven by mutation and natural selection . adaptive radiation often occurs when a species is ... , about 300 million years ago. The dynamics of adaptive radiation is such that, within a relatively short ...

Immune system

... collection of organs and tissues involved in the adaptive defense of a body against foreign biological material. It may be broken down into the adaptive immune system (only found in vertebrates [1] ), ... a body's defense systems, encompassing both the adaptive immune system and other passive defenses, such as ...

Sociobiology

... environments criminal behavior might be adaptive [1] . Some authorities say that capital ... Theory of Evolution ) said that "racism" could be adaptive because it enables groups with superior genetic ... in the above-mentioned theories of the adaptive nature of racism. Also, it is widely known in ...

Species

... stepping stone to the modern theory of adaptive mutation . Lamarck's long-discarded ideas of the ... also possess them. Thus, over many generations, adaptive variations will accumulate in the population, ... should be emphasized that whether a variation is adaptive or non-adaptive depends on the environment: ...

Immunology

... immune system has been divided into innate immune system , and acquired or adaptive immune system , the latter of which is further divided into humoral and ... of harm. Insects and other arthropods , while not possessing true adaptive immunity, show highly evolved systems of innate immunity, and are ...

Natural selection

... or crowding-out due to population growth can change drastically the adaptive traits required to survive - in such conditions, or in any circumstance ... iterations of this process, organisms will develop more and more complex adaptive traits. Mechanisms of natural selection What makes one trait more ...

Red Queen

... Queen in which he discussed the debate in theoretical biology over the adaptive benefit of sexual reproduction to those species in which it appears. The ... that the traditionally accepted theory ( The Vicar of Bray ) only showed adaptive benefit at the level of the species or group, not at the level of the ...

Antibody

... External links Lymphomation: Immunoglobulins How Lymphocytes Produce Antibody PLOS primer: V(D)J Recombination and the Evolution of the adaptive Immune System ...

Artificial life

... the rules which underlay the behavior. James Doyne Farmer was a key figure in tying artificial life research to the emerging field of complex adaptive systems , working at the Center for Nonlinear Studies (a basic research section of Los Alamos National Laboratory ), just as its star chaos ...

Culture

... biological evolution but as a supplement to it, as the main means of human adaptation to the world. This view of culture as a symbolic system with adaptive functions, which varies from place to place, led anthropologists to conceive of different cultures as defined by distinct patterns (or structures) of ...

Fitness landscape

... In evolutionary biology , fitness landscapes or adaptive landscapes are used to visualize the relationship between genotypes (or phenotypes ) and replicatory success. It is assumed that every genotype ...

Genetic drift

... population, and changing the diversity of the group. Drift is observed most strongly in small populations and results in changes that need not be adaptive . Contents showTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Allele frequencies 2 Drift versus selection 3 Genetic drift in populations 4 ...

Glycoprotein

... of the major histocompatibility complex (or MHC), which are expressed on the surface of cells and interact with T-cells as part of the adaptive immune response. Other examples of glycoproteins include: components of the zona pellucida , which surrounds the oocyte , and is important ...

Max Delbr

... children. In 1942, he and Salvador Luria demonstrated that bacterial resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not adaptive change. For that, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969 , sharing it with Alfred Hershey . From the 1950s on, ...

Microbiology

... in a milliliter of liquid culture. These traits allowed Joshua and Esther Lederberg to devise an elegant experiment in 1951 demonstrating that adaptive mutations arise from preadaptation rather than directed mutation. For this purpose, they invented replica plating , which allowed them to transfer ...

Punctuated equilibrium

... with the independent proposals of the theory of evolution by natural selection of Patrick Matthew and Alfred Russel Wallace . See also: adaptive radiation References Eldredge, Niles, and Gould, Stephen Jay:"Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism" in: T.Schopf ...

Sewall Wright

... (also known as the "Sewall Wright effect") and developed the inbreeding coefficient and many of its applications. Wright was the developer of adaptive surfaces ( fitness landscapes ), and he emphasized the importance of the interaction of genetic drift and natural selection in determining the ...

Skin

... Protection: an anatomical barrier between the internal and external environment in bodily defence; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system Sensation: enables irritability Storage: acts as a storage centre for lipids and water, as well as a means of synthesis of ...

Speciation

... can cause drastic changes (called "saltation") that result in speciation in a very short time. Speciation is also related to a process known as adaptive radiation . Speciation mechanisms Ernst Mayr proposed a speciation mechanism called allopatry . Allopatry begins when subpopulations of a ...
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