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Activity in Biological Definition

ATP synthase

... show that this particle is correlated with ATPase activity in uncoupled mitochondria and with the ATPase activity in submitochondrial particles created by exposing mitochondria to ultrasound. This ATPase activity was further associated with the creation of ATP ...

Brain

... . Interfacing brains with machines The activity of a brain can be detected by electrodes, raising ... pacemakers are now common to regulate brain activity in conditions such as Parkinson's disease . ... of observation Each method for observing activity in the brain has its advantages and drawbacks. ...

Hormone

... regulating metabolism and preparation for a new activity (e.g. fighting, fleeing, mating) or phase of life ... be described as serving to regulate metabolic activity of an organ or tissue. Hormones also control the ... hormone (TSH) causes growth and increased activity of another endocrine gland--the thyroid--hence ...

Insulin

... has recently been discovered to have biological activity itself; the activity is apparently confined to an effect on the ... and protein synthesis modification of the activity of numerous enzymes ( allosteric effect ) ...

Long-term potentiation

... the persistence or repetition of a reverberatory activity (or "trace") tends to induce lasting cellular ... Doogie mice Enhanced NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus has also been shown to produce ... for postsynaptic calmodulin and protein kinase activity in long-term potentiation.". Nature 340 ...

Magnetic resonance imaging

... once every 2-3 seconds). Increases in neural activity cause changes in the MR signal via a mechanism ... oxygen level-dependent) effect. Increased neural activity causes an increased demand for oxygen, and the ... precise nature of the relationship between neural activity and the BOLD signal is a subject of current ...

Muscle

... acetylcholine . Muscles and muscular activity account for most of the body's energy ... signals all the way to the brain, but most muscle activity is the result of complex interactions between ... and electromyography (measuring electrical activity in muscles). Neuromuscular diseases are those ...

Rudolf Steiner

... movement it is seen as the source of research activity in education, agriculture, art, natural science, ... development of human consciousness. The activity of individualised human thinking was seen as a ... spiritually free beings through the conscious activity of thinking (see section on 'Philosophical ...

Transmembrane receptor

... domain 4 Regulation of receptor activity 5 See also The extracellular ... The intracellular domain has enzymatic activity . Often, this is a tyrosine kinase activity. The enzymatic activity can also be located on an enzyme associated with ...

Allostery

... In biochemistry , an enzyme or other protein is allosteric if its activity or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called allosteric site . Changes that enhance activity are referred to as allosteric activation , while the opposite is called ...

Allostery

... In biochemistry , an enzyme or other protein is allosteric if its activity or efficiency changes in response to the binding of an effector molecule at a so-called allosteric site . Changes that enhance activity are referred to as allosteric activation , while the opposite is called ...

Apoptosis

... apoptosis) proteins [8] . When a cell receives an apoptotic stimulus, IAP activity is relieved after SMAC (Second Mitochondria-derived Activator of Caspases, ... cells. XIAPs bind to the processed form of caspase-9, and suppress the activity of apoptotic activator cytochrome c (see previous section on biochemical ...

Biodiversity

... and new markets created. For society, biodiversity also is a field of activity and profit. It requires a proper management setup to determine how these ... As a result of the pressures of the growing human population, human activity in many of these areas is increasing dramatically. Most of these hotspots ...

Cell growth

... modification of the molecular structure of Cdc2 inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cdc2 and prevents cell division. In Wee1 mutants, there is less Wee1 activity and Cdc2 becomes active in smaller cells, causing cell division before the ...

Down syndrome

... superoxide dismutase gene. Some (but not all) studies have shown that the activity of the superoxide dismutase enzyme ( SOD ) is elevated in Down syndrome. ... the important role of SOD. However, the hypothesis says that once SOD activity increases disproportionately to enzymes responsible for removal of ...

Molecular biology

... the bacterial or eukaryotic cell. The protein can be tested for enzymatic activity under a variety of situations, the protein may be crystallized so its tertiary structure can be studied, or, in the pharmaceutical industry, the activity of new drugs against the protein can be studied. Polymerase chain ...

Nervous system

... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles , monitors the organs , constructs and processes input ... animates "animals" ( sponges are an exception). Chemicals that target the activity of nerves generally are the most rapidly acting toxins , typically ...

Signal transduction

... hidden so it cannot activate transcription. Furthermore, steroid receptor activity can be enhanced by phosphorylation of serine residues at their ... takes part in the receptor activation. The localized and time-limited activity of Ca 2+ in the cytosol is also called a Ca 2+ wave . The building ...

Thermoregulation

... of animals and birds of nocturnal habit, where the periods of rest and activity are naturally the reverse of the ordinary through habit and not from ... in nocturnal birds the temperature is highest during the natural period of activity (night) and lowest during the period of rest (day), but that the mean ...

Anaphase

... the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. At this point the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) becomes activated. This terminates metaphase (M-phase) activity by cleaving and inactivating the M-phase cyclin required for the function of M-phase cyclin dependent kinases (M-Cdks). It also cleaves securin , ...

Andrew Huxley

... Physiology or Medicine for his work with Alan Lloyd Hodgkin on the basis of nerve " action potentials ," the electrical impulses that enable the activity of an organism to be coordinated by a central nervous system . Hodgkin and Huxley shared the prize that year with John Carew Eccles , who was cited ...

Competitive inhibitor

... the inhibitor alters the shape of the enzyne in such a way that prevents the substrate from binding to the enzyme. In this mode of inhibition, the activity of the enzyme is completely blocked by the inhibitor and increasing the concentration of substrate does not restore enzyme activity. The kinetics ...

Cytoplasm

... component is also known as hyaloplasm . The watery component can be more or less gel -like or liquid depending on the milieu's conditions and the activity phases of the cell. In the first case, it is named cytogel and is a viscid solid mass. In the second case, called cytosol , is a liquid in ....

Electrophysiology

... cells such as neurons and the beta cells of the pancreas. Voltage-clamp recordings are very popular for measuring macroscopic currents in which the activity of many ion channels is occurring at the same time. However with this powerful technique it is also possible to measure the current flowing through a ...

Warm-blooded

... 5 External links Mechanisms Endotherms include birds , mammals , and insects . The advantages of endothermy are increased enzyme activity and a constant body temperature, allowing these animals to be active in cold temperatures. On the other hand, the disadvantage is the need to ...

Enzyme

... caveat is that proteases (enzymes that digest proteins) can be expected to start digesting themselves as they become more concentrated unless their activity is inhibited somehow; in a similar vein, purifications of other enzymes that begin with a preparation containing a protease will often result in ...

Gene

... our DNA strand needs to be correctly placed between the two. If not, it is considered as junk DNA , and is not expressed. Cells regulate the activity of genes in part by increasing or decreasing their rate of transcription. Over the short term, this regulation occurs through the binding or ...

Homeostasis

... of homeostasis. For instance, when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the human body increases, the lungs are signalled to increase their activity and expel more carbon dioxide. In positive feedback , the response is to amplify the change in the variable. This has a de-stabilizing effect, ...

Homunculus

... the occurrence of a process of considering this criterion." Ryle is proposing that if inner reflection were a process then it would be an endless activity if it occurred wholly within the brain (see Ryle's Regress ). However, if the homunculus argument is applied rigorously it should be phrased in ...

Immune system

... with pathogenic cell surfaces, the third recognizes mannose sugars, which tend to appear only on pathogenic cell surfaces. A cascade of protein activity follows complement activation; this cascade can result in a variety of effects including opsonization of the pathogen, destruction of the pathogen ...

Ion channel

... allow potassium to flow into the cell in an inwardly rectifying manner. They are involved in important physiological processes such as the pacemaker activity in the heart, insulin release, and potassium uptake in glial cells. Certain channels respond to multiple influences. For instance, the NMDA ...

Mitochondrion

... usually a cell has hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. Mitochondria can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytosol . Mitochondria are sometimes described as " cellular power ...

Mitochondrion

... usually a cell has hundreds or thousands of mitochondria. The exact number of mitochondria depends on the cell's level of metabolic activity: more activity means more mitochondria. Mitochondria can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytosol . Mitochondria are sometimes described as " cellular power ...

Nutrition

... in nutrition: these are chemical catalysts in our food and also produced in our digestive system. They are vitally important in all the metabolic activity in our bodies. Antioxidants are another recent discovery. Using energy in our bodies often has damaging side effects on cells, and certain food ...

Oncogene

... caused by an increase of protein expression (through misregulation) an increase of protein stability, prolonging its existence and thus its activity in the cell a gene duplication , resulting in a doubled amount of protein in the cell Oncogene Growth factors Growth factors ...

Passive transport

... direction. Diffusion is biologically important because it enables the abolishment of concentration gradients in the body. For example, metabolic activity will consume oxygen , which will reduce its concentration in the bloodstream; diffusion of oxygen in the alveoli of the lungs allows it to be ...

Peptide

... peptides generally disrupt the membranes of a target cell, causing lysis of the cell. How this occurs, and what determines the activity and selectivity of these peptides, is currently only known approximately. It has also been documented that when certain food proteins such as ...

Phosphorylation

... active—stimulates transcription of gene that suppress the cell cycle , even to the extent that it undergoes apoptosis . However, this activity should be limited to situations where the cell is damaged or physiology is disturbed. To this end, the p53 protein is extensively regulated. In ...

Peptide

... peptides generally disrupt the membranes of a target cell, causing lysis of the cell. How this occurs, and what determines the activity and selectivity of these peptides, is currently only known approximately. It has also been documented that when certain food proteins such as ...

Promoter

... Bellan-Koch, A.; Bail, S.; Kohne, E.; and Kleihauer, E. (1991). Thalassemia intermedia: moderate reduction of beta globin gene transcriptional activity by a novel mutation of the proximal CACCC promoter element . Blood . 77 (9), 2054-2058. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome case study: ...
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