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Acids in Biological Definition

Alcohol

... around 16-19 they are generally slightly weaker acids than water , but they are still able to react ... it weakly basic in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid . For example, with ... to give aldehydes , ketones or carboxylic acids , or they can be dehydrated to alkenes . They ...

Alpha helix

... based on the known crystal structures of amino acids and peptides and Pauling's prediction of planar peptide bonds . The amino acids in an α helix are arranged in a helical ... of the polypeptide chain is too high. Some amino acids (called helix breakers ) like proline will ...

Amino acid

... used to refer to alpha amino acids: those amino acids in which the amino and carboxylate ... 3 Reactions 4 List of standard amino acids 4.1 Structures 4.2 Chemical properties 5 Uses of substances derived from amino acids Overview ...

Antibody

... α and γ have approximately 450 amino acids , while μ and ε have approximately 550 ... of one domain. These domains are about 110 amino acids long. There are also some amino acids between constant domains. There are only two ...

Biochemistry

... proteins , carbohydrates , lipids , nucleic acids , and other biomolecules . Recently biochemistry ... Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins and Amino acids DNA , RNA and Nucleic acids This paragraph needs to be moved to Talk ...

Cell metabolism

... or combine simpler substances, such as amino acids , into more complex organic compounds, such as enzymes and nucleic acids . Catabolism Catabolism is a type of ... is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, for transport ...

Citric acid cycle

... for many compounds such as certain amino acids , and some of its reactions are therefore ... into their constituent amino acids. These amino acids are brought into the cells and can be a source ... are hydrolyzed to break them into fatty acids and glycerol . In the liver the glycerol can be ...

Genetic code

... represents a protein sequence, three amino acids long. ( DNA is also a sequence of nucleotide ... what codons specify each of the 20 standard amino acids involved in translation. These are called ... codon table This table shows the 20 amino acids used in proteins, and the codons that code for ...

DNA

... Since there are 64 possible codons, most amino acids have more than one possible codon. There are ... the month Open Directory Project : Nucleic acids 17 April, 2003, BBC News: Most ancient DNA ... Francis Crick, " Molecular structure of nucleic acids , A structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid ". ...

Gel electrophoresis

... When separating proteins or small nucleic acids ( DNA , RNA , or oligonucleotides ) the gel is ... polyacrylamide . When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases ), the ... or formamide , are used to renature the nucleic acids and cause them to behave as long rods again. ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... covered with ribosomes (which assemble amino acids into proteins based on instructions from the ... membranes such as phospholipids ), fatty acids and steroids (e.g., hormones ), and also ... chain (e.g., a protein) contains a few amino acids that work as an address tag, which are removed ...

Enzyme

... protein made up of about hundred amino acids or more, or an oligomeric protein consisting of ... produced as a long, linear chain of amino acids , which folds in a particular fashion to produce ... (s) attach, and active site (s), where the amino acids perform the catalysis; and frequently one or more ...

Gel electrophoresis

... When separating proteins or small nucleic acids ( DNA , RNA , or oligonucleotides ) the gel is ... polyacrylamide . When separating larger nucleic acids (greater than a few hundred bases ), the ... or formamide , are used to renature the nucleic acids and cause them to behave as long rods again. ...

Genetic code

... represents a protein sequence, three amino acids long. ( DNA is also a sequence of nucleotide ... what codons specify each of the 20 standard amino acids involved in translation. These are called ... codon table This table shows the 20 amino acids used in proteins, and the codons that code for ...

Insulin

... his with Collip. The exact sequence of amino acids comprising the insulin molecule, the so-called ... all the cells. Insulin is built from 51 amino acids and is one of the smallest proteins known; ... the reverse increased esterification of fatty acids – forces adipose tissue to make fats (ie, ...

Citric acid cycle

... for many compounds such as certain amino acids , and some of its reactions are therefore ... into their constituent amino acids. These amino acids are brought into the cells and can be a source ... are hydrolyzed to break them into fatty acids and glycerol . In the liver the glycerol can be ...

Nephron

... ions ), solutes (such as glucose , amino acids , phosphates , and so on) according to the ... , contains water , glucose , salt , amino acids , and urea . Proximal tubule The valuable molecules, water , glucose , salt , and amino acids are reabsorbed by the blood . The filtrate is ...

Nutrition

... into question. The balance of essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic oil) has been discovered ... Imbalances in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids is thought to be related to autism and some ... China project enzyme essential amino acids Essential fatty acid food pyramid ...

Origin of life

... basic biomolecules such as components of amino acids , while not settled, is less controversial than ... that would undergo cross-reactions with the amino acids or terminate the peptide chain. A possible ... of these postulate early appearance of nucleic acids (" genes -first"), whereas the evolution of ...

Peptide

... linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids . The link between one amino acid residue and the ... to make synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins. The dividing line is at approximately 50 amino acids in length, since naturally-occurring proteins ...

Peptide

... linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids . The link between one amino acid residue and the ... to make synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins. The dividing line is at approximately 50 amino acids in length, since naturally-occurring proteins ...

Prion

... ( bacteria , viruses , etc.) contained nucleic acids that are necessary for reproduction. The prion ... asserts that all living organisms use nucleic acids to reproduce. Prusiner's idea — that a ... ( protein domain ) with many repeats of the amino acids glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N); these ...

Protein

... weight organic compound that consists of amino acids joined by peptide bonds . Proteins are ... nutrition, proteins serve as the source of amino acids for organisms that do not synthesize those amino acids natively. Proteins are one of the classes of ...

Purine

... their tautomers . Two of the bases in nucleic acids , adenine and guanine , are purines. In DNA ... a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine , glutamine , and aspartic acid , as ... . Purines from turnover of nucleic acids (or from food) can also be salvaged and reused in ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... covered with ribosomes (which assemble amino acids into proteins based on instructions from the ... membranes such as phospholipids ), fatty acids and steroids (e.g., hormones ), and also ... chain (e.g., a protein) contains a few amino acids that work as an address tag, which are removed ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... covered with ribosomes (which assemble amino acids into proteins based on instructions from the ... membranes such as phospholipids ), fatty acids and steroids (e.g., hormones ), and also ... chain (e.g., a protein) contains a few amino acids that work as an address tag, which are removed ...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... covered with ribosomes (which assemble amino acids into proteins based on instructions from the ... membranes such as phospholipids ), fatty acids and steroids (e.g., hormones ), and also ... chain (e.g., a protein) contains a few amino acids that work as an address tag, which are removed ...

Vitamin

... such as dietary minerals , essential fatty acids or essential amino acids . Nor is it used for the large number of other ... designation originally given to essential fatty acids that the body cannot manufacture. They were ...

Adenosine triphosphate

... cells . ATP also plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids . ATP molecules are also used to store the energy plants make in ... photosynthesis . The main fuels for ATP synthesis are glucose and fatty acids . Initially glucose is broken down into pyruvate in the cytosol . Two ...

Alternative splicing

... mRNA transcript. However, the intron must be properly encoding for amino acids . The intron's code must be properly expressible, otherwise a stop codon ... in this case, certain exons are spliced out to alter the sequence of amino acids in the expressed protein. Importance in molecular genetics ...

Amine

... Reactions Dissolving secondary and tertiary amines using strong acids like HI, HBr, or HCl does not lead to a lower grade amine and an ... Because they are basic, amines can neutralize carboxylic acids to form the corresponding substituted ammonium carboxylate salts. Upon ...

Anabolism

... processes include breakdown of muscle protein in order to use amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis (much like burning furniture in ... you are out of firewood), and breakdown of fat in adipose to fatty acids for fuel. Because it is counterproductive to have anabolic and ...

Biopolymer

... in which the monomer units, respectively, are sugars , amino acids , and nucleic acids . The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are ...

Blood

... ( leukocytes , abnormal tumor cells) and different substances ( amino acids , lipids , hormones ) to be transported between tissues and organs. ... Kuppfer cells in the liver. The liver also clears proteins and amino acids (the kidney secretes many small proteins into the urine ). ...

Anabolism

... processes include breakdown of muscle protein in order to use amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis (much like burning furniture in ... you are out of firewood), and breakdown of fat in adipose to fatty acids for fuel. Because it is counterproductive to have anabolic and ...

Chromatin

... (thus the name which literaly means coloured material). The nucleic acids are generally in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major proteins ... (thus the name which literaly means coloured material). The nucleic acids are generally in the form of double-stranded DNA. The major proteins ...

Chromatography

... coordinate covalent binding between histidine or other unique amino acids (either naturally present on the surface of the protein or grafted with ... pure protein is obtained. See also Paper chromatography of amino acids External Links Library 4 Science online books about ...

Collagen

... It contains a lot of glycine and proline , as well as two amino acids that are not inserted directly by ribosomes – hydroxyproline and ... Another rare feature of collagen is its regular arrangement of amino acids in each of the alpha chains of the collagen sub-units. The sequence ...

Diabetes mellitus

... . Fat in adipose tissue is reduced to triglycerides and fatty acids by lipolysis . Muscle is degraded to release amino acids for gluconeogenesis. The rise of fatty acid levels is accompanied by a ...

Dialysis

... is used at body temperature, and consists of a solution of glucose, amino acids and mineral ions. The solution is sterilized. Urea diffuses into the ... does not contain the compound. However, concentrations of glucose, amino acids and minerals are either similar to those of normal plasma to prevent ...
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