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ANTIGEN in Biological Definition

Antibody

... viruses . Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target. Contents ... and the light chain, which together shape the antigen binding site at the amino terminal end of the ... to note that to produce such a diversity of antigen binding sites with a separate gene for each ...

Antigen

... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies . Usually, an antigen is a protein or a polysaccharide , but it can ... amino acids in a protein). Tolerogen - An antigen that invokes a specific immune unresponsiveness ...

Apoptosis

... say, from a malignant mutation) or with foreign antigen produced as a consequence of a viral infection. ... shapes of their receptors do not engage any antigen of significance), or dangerous to their own ... and those that show high affinity to healthy self antigen are killed via apoptosis. Be aware that the ...

Immune system

... most important examples are the mechanisms of antigen presentation. After they leave the thymus, T ... T cells (CTLs). Activation is provided by antigen presenting cells (APCs). A major category of APCs ... a DC simulatenously binds to a T "helper" cell's antigen receptor and to its CD28 receptor, which ...

Monoclonal antibody

... Production If a foreign substance (an antigen ) is injected into a vertebrate such as a ... are then tested for their ability to bind to the antigen (for example with a test such as ELISA ), and ... the small variation (if any) in recognizing the antigen helps to reduce side effects. However, there are ...

Blood type

... with type A blood have red blood cells with antigen A on their surface and produce antibodies against antigen B in their blood serum. Using the blood ... type B blood have the opposite arrangement, antigen B on the cell and produce antibodies to substance ...

Affinity chromatography

... blood serum. If serum is known to contain antibodies against a specific antigen (for example if the serum comes from an organism immunised against the antigen concerned) then it can be used for the affinity purification of the ...

Cancer

... for by a digital rectal exam along with annual prostate specific antigen blood testing. Screening for cancer is controversial in cases when it ... Medicine , National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet. The Prostate-Specific antigen (PSA) Test: Questions and Answers , National Cancer Institute Fact ...

Helper T cell

... is a T cell (a type of white blood cell ) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class ... and interleukin-13. Memory T H cells are specific to the antigen they first encountered and can be called upon during the secondary immune ...

Immunology

... Diagnostic immunology The specificity of the bond between antibody and antigen has made it an excellent tool in the detection of substances in a variety of diagnostic techniques. Antibodies specific for a desired antigen can be conjugated with a radiolabel, fluorescent label, or color-forming ...

T cell

... T cells secrete cytokines that turn off the immune response once an antigen has been eliminated from the body. Every effective immune response ... cortical epithelioreticular cells . Only those cells that recognize the antigen presented and bind the MHC molecule with the affinity high enough, ....

B cell

... antigen(s) encountered during the primary immune response; able to live for a long time, these cells can respond quickly upon second exposure to the antigen for which they are specific. Humoral immunity (the creation of antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph ) involves B cell ...

Cytotoxic T cell

... A cytotoxic (or T C ) T cell is a T cell (a type of white blood cell ) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class I MHC molecules of virus infected somatic cells and tumor cells. ...

Hepatitis B

... countries, such as China, vertical transmission is most common. Without intervention, a mother who is positive for the Hepatitis B surface antigen confers a 20% risk of passing the infection to her offspring at the time of birth. This risk is as high as 90% if the mother is also positive for ...

Major histocompatibility complex

... in the MHC region are the subset that encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins. In humans, these genes are referred to as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, although people often use the abbreviation MHC to refer to HLA gene products. To disambiguate the usage, some of the biomedical ...

Receptor

... neurotransmitter , hormone , or other substance. In immunology , a receptor is the region of an antibody which shows recognition of an antigen . ...

Synapse

... from the synapse by the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase . By analogy to true synapses described above, the interface between an antigen presenting cell and lymphocyte is sometimes called an immunological synapse . References M.F. Bear, B.W. Conners, and M.A. Paradiso. 2001. ...
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