... The most well-known disease that affects the immune system itself is aids
, caused by the HIV virus . aids
is an immunodeficiency characterized by the lack of CD4+ ("helper") T ...
... claims that there is no sufficient evidence for stating that HIV causes aids
He has also advocated that concentrations be measured ...
... long- or short-sightedness, due to changes in muscle tension.
Individuals with these conditions may be helped by the use of glasses and low-visual aids
such as magnifiers, as well as bright but angled reading lights, but their vision cannot be corrected completely. Although surgery is possible on the ...
... of apoptotic cells is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases including cancer, neuro-degenerative and ischemic diseases, aids
and autoimmunity. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) the antigen responsible for most anti-DNA antibodies, exclusively generated in this disease, ...
... A person receiving a blood transfusion must have a blood type compatible with that of the donor.
Blood is an important vector of infection. aids
, the virus of which, HIV , is transmitted through contact between blood, semen , or the bodily secretions of an infected person. Hepatitis B ...
... crossover can create duplicate genes.
Any pair of homologous chromosomes may be expected to cross over three or four times during meiosis. This aids
evolution by increasing independent assortment, and reducing the genetic linkage between genes on the same chromosome.
The physical basis of ...
... 2003 .
Filoviruses . Centers for Disease Control Special Pathogens Branch. 3 September 2003 .
Horowitz, Leonard G. Emerging Viruses: aids
& Ebola — Nature, Accident, or Intentional? . Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron, Inc., 1996 .
Preston, Richard. The Hot Zone . New York: ...
... circuit. The control of the membrane potential using voltage-clamp is most obviously of value in the study of voltage-gated ion channels , but also aids
in characterizing conductance . Current-clamp, on the other hand, is used to study cell excitability by analyzing the action potentials produced ...
... common is tinea pedis or Athlete's foot . Mycoses are particularly severe in the case of immunodeficient patients, such as those
suffering from aids
Fungi are eukaryotes . Once counted among the plants , the fungi are now thought to be more closely related to the animals and ...
... their proteins as soon as they are infected and without the delay in waiting for transcription. On the other hand, RNA retroviruses , such as aids
, require the reverse transcription of their genome from RNA into DNA before their proteins can be synthesized.
Human gene nomenclature
Helper T cell
... H cells with CD4 surface protein are called CD4+ T cells . The decrease in number of CD4+ T cells is the primary mechanism by which HIV causes aids
... .  The expected life span at birth in Singapore is 84.29 years for a female and 78.96 years for a male, while in Botswana , due largely to aids
, it is 30.99 years for a male and 30.53 years for a female. One in five Europeans , but one in twenty Africans , is 60 years or older, according ...
... forms of immune deficiency. Chronic granulomatous disease , in which phagocytes have trouble destroying pathogens, is an example of the former. aids
("Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome"), an infectious disease , caused by the HIV virus that destroys CD4 + T cells, is an example of the ...
Underside view of leaf
See Leaf shape
The leaf margin is characteristic for a genus and aids
in determining the species.
entire: even; with a smooth margin; without toothing
ciliate: fringed with hairs
crenate: wavy-toothed; dentate ...
... molecules, the secondary structure is highly important to the correct function of the RNA — often more so than the actual sequence. This fact aids
in the analysis of non-coding RNA sometimes termed "RNA genes". RNA secondary structure can be predicted with some accuracy by computer, and many ...
... on the skin or if swallowed. However, semen can be the vehicle for many sexually transmitted diseases , including HIV , the virus that causes aids
. It is also hypothesized that components of semen, such as the spermatozoa as well as the seminal plasma, can cause immunosuppression in the body ...
... rapid evolutionary ... 2004-01-09 ScienceDaily: Mayo Researchers Observe Genetic Fusion Of Human, Animal Cells; May Help Explain Origin Of aids
Quote: ... researchers have discovered conditions in which pig cells and human cells can fuse together in the body to yield hybrid cells ...
... or 'help' effector lymphocyte function. They are known as one of the targets of HIV infection, and the decrease of CD4 + T cells results in aids
. Some helper T cells secrete cytokines that turn off the immune response once an antigen has been eliminated from the body.
Every effective ...
... vaccine. If the policy were well-designed, it might also ensure that people have access to a vaccine if and when it is developed.
Timeline of vaccines
Examples of diseases caused by viruses include the common cold , which is caused by any one of a variety of related viruses; smallpox ; aids
, which is caused by HIV ; and cold sores, which are caused by herpes simplex . Recently it has been shown that cervical cancer is caused at least ...