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Emisphere Technologies, Inc. Reports Clinical Data on Oral Delivery,of GLP-1 and PYY

ike peptide-1 is synthesized in intestinal endocrine cells in two principal major molecular forms, as GLP-1(7-36) amide and GLP-1(7-37). The peptide was first identified following the cloning of cDNAs and genes for proglucagon in the early 1980s. The main target of action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is the islet, where the hormone stimulates insulin secretion, promotes beta cell proliferation and neogenesis, and inhibits glucagon secretion. However, GLP-1 receptors are also expressed outside the islets, increasing the likelihood that GLP-1 also plays a role in other organs. These functions are mainly the inhibition of gastric emptying, gastric acid secretion and exocrine pancreatic secretion, indicating that the hormone acts as an enterogastrone -- a hormone released from the distal portion of the small intestine that inhibits proximal gastrointestinal events. Another important action of GLP-1 is to induce satiety.

About PYY

Peptide YY 3-36 is produced by the gut and is released into the circulation in response to food ingestion. Food intake is regulated by the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems in the arcuate nucleus. The NPY Y2 receptor (Y2R), a putative inhibitory presynaptic receptor, is highly expressed on NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which is accessible to peripheral hormones. Peptide YY 3-36, a Y2R agonist, is released from the gastrointestinal tract postprandially in proportion to the calorie content of a meal. It is believed that PYY may be an important regulator of food intake.

About Diabetes

According to statistics provided by the World Health Organization and the American Diabetes Association, approximately 177 million people worldwide are afflicted by diabetes, with approximately 18 million of those afflicted residing in the United States. Nearly one-third of all individuals in the United States suffering from diabetes are unaware that they have this chronic disease. Type 2
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